Document

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 10, 2022
Registration No. 333-    
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
LianBio
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Cayman Islands98-1594670
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
103 Carnegie Center Drive, Suite 309
Princeton, NJ 08540
(609) 486-2308
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Yizhe Wang, Ph.D.
Chief Executive Officer
LianBio
103 Carnegie Center Drive, Suite 309
Princeton, NJ 08540
Telephone: (609) 486-2308
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copy to:
Yi Larson
Chief Financial Officer
LianBio
103 Carnegie Center Drive, Suite 309
Princeton, NJ 08540
Telephone: (609) 486-2308
Thomas J. Danielski, Esq.
Ropes & Gray LLP
800 Boylston Street
Boston, MA 02199
Telephone: (617) 951-7000
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this registration statement becomes effective.
If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ☐
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.  ☒
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐
If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐ 
If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer ☐
Accelerated filer  ☐
Non-accelerated filer  ☒
Smaller reporting company  ☒
Emerging growth company  ☒
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act.  ☒
The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act, or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.



The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.
Subject to completion, dated November 10, 2022
PROSPECTUS
$500,000,000
LianBio
https://cdn.kscope.io/a6dc46c2c45fce4d71c6edf67109cf71-image_0a.jpg
Ordinary Shares in the form of ordinary shares or American depositary shares
Preferred Shares in the form of preferred shares or American depositary shares
Debt Securities
Warrants
Units
We may offer and sell from time to time, in one or more series or issuances and on terms that we will determine at the time of the offering, any combination of the securities described in this prospectus, up to an aggregate amount of $500,000,000.
We will provide the specific terms of any offering in a supplement to this prospectus. Any prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement as well as the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus before you purchase any of the securities offered hereby.
The securities may be offered and sold in the same offering or in separate offerings; to or through underwriters, dealers and agents; or directly to purchasers. The names of any underwriters, dealers or agents involved in the sale of our securities, their compensation and any over-allotment options held by them will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. See “Plan of Distribution.”
Our American depositary shares, or ADSs, each representing one ordinary share, par value $0.000017100448 are listed on NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol “LIAN.” On November 9, 2022, the closing price of our ADSs was $1.26.
Investing in these securities involves certain risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 2, and any applicable prospectus supplement, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities, or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
Prospectus dated          , 2022.


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a shelf registration process. Under this shelf process, we may sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $500,000,000. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of those securities and their offering, including the specific amounts, prices and terms of the offered securities. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Documents by Reference.”
This prospectus does not include all of the information that is in the registration statement. We omitted certain parts of the registration statement from this prospectus as permitted by the SEC. We refer you to the registration statement and its exhibits for additional information about us and the securities that may be sold under this prospectus.
If you are in a jurisdiction where offers to sell, or solicitations of offers to purchase, the securities offered by this document are unlawful, or if you are a person to whom it is unlawful to direct these types of activities, then the offer presented in this document does not extend to you.
Wherever references are made in this prospectus to information that will be included in a prospectus supplement, to the extent permitted by applicable law, rules or regulations, we may instead include such information or add, update or change the information contained in this prospectus by means of a post-effective amendment to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, through filings we make with the SEC that are incorporated by reference in this prospectus or by any other method as may then be permitted under applicable law, rules or regulations.
We have not authorized any dealer, agent or other person to give any information or to make any representation other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. You must not rely upon any information or representation not contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or an accompanying prospectus supplement. This prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement, if any, do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the registered securities to which they relate, nor do this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation in such jurisdiction. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement, if any, is accurate on any date subsequent to the date set forth on the front of the document or that any information we have incorporated by reference is correct on any date subsequent to the date of the document incorporated by reference, even though this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement is delivered or securities are sold on a later date. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.
Unless context otherwise requires, in this prospectus the terms “we,” “our,” “us” and similar terms refer to LianBio. The securities that may be offered using this prospectus are referred to collectively as the “securities.” Additionally, the term “Greater China” refers to mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macau.
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SUMMARY
This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. The summary may not contain all the information that you should consider before investing in our securities. You should read the entire prospectus carefully, including “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein, before making an investment decision.
Overview
We are a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company dedicated to bringing innovative medicines to patients with unmet medical needs in Asia. Our initial focus is to in-license assets for development and commercialization in Greater China and other Asian markets. We have assembled a pipeline of nine therapeutic candidates across cardiovascular, oncology, ophthalmology, inflammation, and respiratory indications, each with its own distinct value proposition and the potential to drive new standards of care. With operations in China, Asia Pacific, and the United States, we have built a cross-border platform to provide our licensing partners access to our regulatory, development, and commercial expertise in China and other Asian markets. We have created a diverse, balanced portfolio of highly differentiated assets that represent our broad program scope and significant potential market opportunity across various stages of development, providing multiple avenues for value creation. We intend to continue to evaluate innovative, complementary product candidates with the potential to become new standards of care in Asia to deepen our pipeline.
Corporate information
We are an exempted company incorporated in the Cayman Islands with limited liability under the Companies Act of the Cayman Islands on July 17, 2019. Any company that is registered in the Cayman Islands but conducts business mainly outside of the Cayman Islands may apply to be registered as an exempted company. The principal executive office of our research and development operations is located at 16F, Building 5, Enterprise World, 150 Hubin Road, Huangpu District, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China, 200021. Our telephone number at this address is (021) 2308 1188. Our current registered office in the Cayman Islands is located at the offices of International Corporation Services Ltd., 2nd Floor, Harbour Place, 103 South Church Street, P.O. Box 472, George Town, Grand Cayman KY1-1106, Cayman Islands. Our principal executive offices are located at 103 Carnegie Center Drive, Suite 309, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 and our telephone number is (609) 486-2308. Our website address is www.lianbio.com. Information contained on our website or connected thereto does not constitute part of, and is not incorporated by reference into, this prospectus or the registration statement of which it forms a part.
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described under “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, as amended and revised or supplemented by any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, as filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference in this prospectus, as well as the risk factors and other information contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus before acquiring any of our securities. If any of the events or developments described in such risk factors were to occur, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition could suffer materially, the trading price of our ADSs or other securities could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment. The risks and uncertainties we have described are not the only ones facing our company. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe to be immaterial may also adversely affect our business.
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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT CONCERNING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus, any prospectus supplement and the other documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated herein by reference, contain forward-looking statements. By their nature, forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties because they relate to events and depend on circumstances that may or may not occur in the future. Forward-looking statements are neither historical facts nor assurances of future performance. Instead, they are based on our current beliefs, expectations and assumptions regarding the future of our business, future plans and strategies, our operational results and other future conditions. Forward-looking statements can be identified by words such as “aim,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “predict,” “project,” “seek,” “target,” “potential,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “continue,” “contemplate” and other similar expressions, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. These forward-looking statements include all matters that are not historical facts. They appear in a number of places throughout this prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference and include statements regarding our intentions, beliefs or current expectations concerning, among other things, our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity, prospects, growth, strategies and the industry in which we operate.
These forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements about:
our ability to successfully develop, gain regulatory approval for and launch commercial products in Greater China and other Asian markets;
our ability to deliver innovative therapeutic solutions to patients and become a leading biopharmaceutical company in Greater China, including Mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Macau, and other Asian markets;
our plans and ability to leverage data generated in our partners’ global registrational trials and clinical development programs to obtain regulatory approval for and bring our current product candidates to market in our licensed territories, and our plans to maximize patient reach for each of our product candidates;
our partners’ announced plans and expectations with respect to the success, cost and timing of their product development activities, preclinical studies and clinical trials, including statements regarding the timing of initiation and completion of studies or trials and related preparatory work, the timing of expected review from regulatory authorities and the period during which the results of the trials are expected to become available;
our ability to expand our pipeline through the continued strategic in-licensing of innovative and complementary product candidates with the potential to become the new standard of care in Greater China and other Asian markets;
our ability to successfully establish an international infrastructure, including by building a focused salesforce in China and leveraging the commercial infrastructure we create to benefit our other assets;
our ability to establish and maintain relationships and collaborations with investors and our current and any future licensing partners that will contribute to our success in sourcing value and creating partnerships to enable us to build out a broad and clinically validated pipeline;
our ability to design, initiate and complete any clinical trials to advance our current product candidates, including mavacamten, TP-03, NBTXR3, infigratinib, BBP-398, LYR-210, omilancor, NX-13 and sisunatovir, as well as any future product candidates, towards regulatory approval in China and our other licensed territories;
our ability to conduct, and the timing of and costs related to, our product development activities, including any preclinical studies and related clinical trials in Greater China and other Asian markets of our current and any future product candidates, and our ability to obtain, and the timing of and costs related to, potential regulatory approval of such product candidates in Greater China and other Asian markets;
our plans to pursue the development of certain product candidates for additional treatment indications;
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our ability to successfully utilize the data we may generate from any clinical trials we conduct in Greater China or other territories, including in conjunction with data from clinical trials conducted by our partners, to seek regulatory approval in Greater China and other Asian markets;
our plans and ability to join our current and future partners’ clinical and registrational trials and our plans and ability to initiate and complete our standalone clinical and registrational trials;
our ability to design and implement the development strategies for our product candidates in each of our licensed territories and, where applicable, our ability to design and implement global development strategies for our product candidates in new indications in connection with our local development strategies;
the potential for certain of our current and future product candidates to have more benign safety profiles or result in differentiated safety profiles than currently available therapeutic options;
the size, composition and growth potential of the patient populations and markets we intend to target with our product candidates and our ability to develop and commercialize product candidates to address those patient populations and markets;
our ability to successfully procure from our partners or other third parties, as applicable, sufficient supply of our product candidates for any preclinical studies, clinical trials or commercial use, if approved;
our ability to obtain funding for our operations, including funding necessary to complete further development and commercialization of our product candidates and our general and administrative expenses;
the rate and degree of market acceptance of our product candidates;
our ability to attract and retain key scientific or management personnel;
the impact of laws and regulations and of any legal and regulatory developments in our licensed territories or internationally;
our expectations regarding our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our product candidates;
our ability to license intellectual property relating to our product candidates and to comply with our existing license and collaboration agreements;
our reliance on third parties to conduct product development, manufacturing and other services, and any agreements we have or into which we may enter with such parties in connection with the commercialization of our product candidates and any other approved product;
our expectations regarding the time during which we will be an emerging growth company or smaller reporting company;
the direct and indirect impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, operations (including clinical trials) and the markets and communities in which we and our partners, collaborators and vendors operate; and
our estimates of our expenses, capital requirements and needs for additional financing.
These factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read with the other cautionary statements in this prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference.
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Although we base these forward-looking statements on assumptions that we believe are reasonable when made, we caution you that forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and that our actual results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and the development of the industry in which we operate may differ materially from those made in or suggested by the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference. In addition, even if our results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and the development of the industry in which we operate, are consistent with the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference, those results or developments may not be indicative of results or developments in subsequent periods.
Given these risks and uncertainties, you are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statement that we make in this prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference speaks only as of the date of such statement. Unless required by law, we will not undertake and we specifically disclaim any obligation to release publicly the result of any revisions which may be made to any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of such statements or to reflect the occurrence of events, whether or not anticipated. Comparisons of results for current and any prior periods are not intended to express any future trends or indications of future performance, unless specifically expressed as such, and should only be viewed as historical data.
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ENFORCEABILITY OF CERTAIN CIVIL LIABILITIES
We are incorporated in the Cayman Islands to take advantage of certain benefits associated with being a Cayman Islands exempted company, such as:
political and economic stability;
an effective judicial system;
a favorable tax system;
the absence of exchange control or currency restrictions; and
the availability of professional and support services.
However, certain disadvantages accompany incorporation in the Cayman Islands. These disadvantages include, but are not limited to:
the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws as compared to the United States and these securities laws provide significantly less protection to investors as compared to the United States; and
Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to sue before the federal courts of the United States.
Our constituent documents do not contain provisions requiring that disputes, including those arising under the securities laws of the United States, between us, our officers, directors and shareholders, be arbitrated.
A majority of our operations are conducted in China, and certain of our assets are located in China. Certain of our directors and executive officers are nationals or residents of jurisdictions other than the United States may have assets located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for a shareholder to effect service of process within the United States upon these persons, or to enforce against us or them judgments obtained in United States courts, including judgments predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States.
Travers Thorp Alberga, our legal counsel as to Cayman Islands law, and Zhong Lun Law Firm, our legal counsel as to Chinese law, have advised us, respectively, that there is uncertainty as to whether the courts of the Cayman Islands and China, respectively, would:
recognize or enforce judgments of United States courts obtained against us or our directors or officers predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States; or
entertain original actions brought in each respective jurisdiction against us or our directors or officers predicated upon the securities laws of the United States or any state in the United States.
There is uncertainty with regard to Cayman Islands law relating to whether a judgment obtained from the United States courts under civil liability provisions of the securities laws will be determined by the courts of the Cayman Islands as penal or punitive in nature. If such a determination is made, the courts of the Cayman Islands will not recognize or enforce the judgment against a Cayman Islands company. Because the courts of the Cayman Islands have yet to rule on whether such judgments are penal or punitive in nature, it is uncertain whether they would be enforceable in the Cayman Islands. Travers Thorp Alberga have advised us that although there is no statutory enforcement in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the federal or state courts of the United States, a judgment in personam obtained in such jurisdiction will be recognized and enforced in the courts of the Cayman Islands at common law, without any re-examination of the merits of the underlying dispute, by an action commenced on the foreign judgment debt in the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands, provided such judgment:
is given by a competent foreign court with jurisdiction to give the judgment;
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imposes a specific positive obligation on the judgment debtor (such as an obligation to pay a liquidated sum or perform a specified obligation);
is final and conclusive;
is not in respect of taxes, a fine or a penalty; and
was not obtained in a manner and is not of a kind the enforcement of which is contrary to natural justice or the public policy of the Cayman Islands.
Zhong Lun Law Firm has further advised us that the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments are provided for under the PRC Civil Procedures Law. Chinese courts may recognize and enforce foreign judgments in accordance with the requirements of the PRC Civil Procedures Law based either on treaties between China and the country where the judgment is made or on principles of reciprocity between jurisdictions. China does not have any treaties or other form of reciprocity with the United States or the Cayman Islands that provide for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments. In addition, according to the PRC Civil Procedures Law, courts in China will not enforce a foreign judgment against us or our directors and officers if they decide that the judgment violates the basic principles of Chinese law or national sovereignty, security or social public interest. As a result, it is uncertain whether and on what basis a Chinese court would enforce a judgment rendered by a court in the United States or in the Cayman Islands. Under the PRC Civil Procedures Law, foreign shareholders may originate actions based on Chinese law against a company in China for disputes if they can establish sufficient nexus to China for a Chinese court to have jurisdiction, and meet other procedural requirements, including, among others, the plaintiff must have a direct interest in the case, and there must be a concrete claim, a factual basis and a cause for the suit. However, it would be difficult for foreign shareholders to establish sufficient nexus to China by virtue only of holding our ADSs or ordinary shares.
In addition, it will be difficult for U.S. shareholders to originate actions against us in China in accordance with Chinese laws because we are incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands and it will be difficult for U.S. shareholders, by virtue only of holding our ADSs or ordinary shares, to establish a connection to China for a Chinese court to have jurisdiction as required under the PRC Civil Procedures Law.
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USE OF PROCEEDS
Except as otherwise provided in an applicable prospectus supplement in connection with an offering of securities pursuant to this prospectus, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered by us under this prospectus primarily for general corporate purposes. General corporate purposes may include, without limitation, research and development expenditures, preclinical and clinical development and commercialization of our product candidates, the acquisition or in-licensing of products or product candidates, business or technologies, collaborations, working capital and capital expenditures. We may temporarily invest the net proceeds we receive in short-term, interest-bearing obligations, investment-grade instruments, certificates of deposit or direct or guaranteed obligations of the U.S. government and its agencies.
We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds we may receive, and investors will be relying on the judgment of our management regarding the application of our net proceeds. Additional information on the use of net proceeds we receive from the sale of securities covered by this prospectus may be set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the specific offering.
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We may sell securities in any of the ways described below or in any combination:
to or through underwriters or dealers;
through one or more agents;
directly to purchasers or to a single purchaser; or
in “at the market offerings,” within the meaning of Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, to or through a market maker or into an existing trading market, or an exchange or otherwise.
The distribution of the securities by us may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions:
at a fixed price, or prices, which may be changed from time to time;
at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;
at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or
at negotiated prices.
Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions.
The prospectus supplement will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the following:
name or names of any underwriters, dealers or agents and the amounts of securities underwritten or purchased by each of them;
the initial public offering price of the securities and the proceeds to us and any discounts, commissions or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and
any securities exchanges on which the securities may be listed.
Any offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers will be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement and may be changed from time to time.
Only the agents or underwriters named in each prospectus supplement are agents or underwriters in connection with the securities being offered thereby.
We may authorize underwriters, dealers or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in each applicable prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in each applicable prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will be subject only to those conditions set forth in each applicable prospectus supplement, and each prospectus supplement will set forth any commissions we pay for solicitation of these contracts.
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Agents, underwriters and other third parties described above may be entitled to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribution from us with respect to payments which the agents, underwriters or other third parties may be required to make in respect thereof. Agents, underwriters and such other third parties may be customers of, engage in transactions with, or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business. We may also use underwriters or such other third parties with whom we have a material relationship. We will describe the nature of any such relationship in the applicable prospectus supplement.
One or more firms, referred to as “remarketing firms,” may also offer or sell the securities, if a prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with a remarketing arrangement upon their purchase. Remarketing firms will act as principals for their own accounts or as our agents. These remarketing firms will offer or sell the securities in accordance with the terms of the securities. Each prospectus supplement will identify and describe any remarketing firm and the terms of its agreement, if any, with us and will describe the remarketing firm’s compensation. Remarketing firms may be deemed to be underwriters in connection with the securities they remarket. Remarketing firms may be entitled under agreements that may be entered into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.
Certain underwriters may use this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement for offers and sales related to market-making transactions in the securities. These underwriters may act as principal or agent in these transactions, and the sales will be made at prices related to prevailing market prices at the time of sale. Any underwriters involved in the sale of the securities may qualify as “underwriters” within the meaning of Section 2(a)(11) of the Securities Act. In addition, the underwriters’ commissions, discounts or concessions may qualify as underwriters’ compensation under the Securities Act and the rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority.
Our ADSs are listed on The Nasdaq Global Market. Underwriters may make a market in our ADSs but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We can make no assurance as to the development, maintenance or liquidity of any trading market for the securities.
Certain persons participating in an offering may engage in overallotment, stabilizing transactions, short covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with rules and regulations under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Overallotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum. Short covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution is completed to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a short covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of the activities at any time.
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DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL
We are a Cayman Islands company, and our affairs are governed by our Fifth Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association and the Companies Act.
Our authorized share capital consists of US$50,000.00 divided into 2,923,900,005 shares of a nominal or par value of US$0.000017100448 each. As of November 7, 2022, we had 108,353,831 ordinary shares outstanding. This total number of ordinary shares excludes 2,175,095 ordinary shares that are held by the depositary on reserve to satisfy obligations of the registrant under the registrant's equity plans.
The following are summaries of material provisions of our Fifth Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association, insofar as they relate to the material terms of our ordinary shares, and other relevant documents referenced below. These descriptions are merely summaries, and do not purport to be complete. The summaries are subject to and qualified in their entirety by reference to our Fifth Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association and the other documents referenced below.
Ordinary Shares
General. Our ordinary shares are fully paid and non-assessable. Certificates representing the ordinary shares are issued in registered form. Our shareholders who are non-residents of the Cayman Islands may freely hold and transfer their ordinary shares.
Dividend rights. The holders of our ordinary shares are entitled to such dividends as may be declared by our board of directors. Our Fifth Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association provides that dividends may be declared and paid out of our profits, realized or unrealized, or from any reserve set aside from profits which our board of directors determine is no longer needed. Dividends may also be declared and paid out of share premium account or any other fund or account which can be authorized for this purpose in accordance with the Companies Act. Holders of ordinary shares will be entitled to the same amount of dividends, if declared.
Voting rights. In respect of all matters subject to a shareholders’ vote, each ordinary share is entitled to one vote. Voting at any meeting of shareholders is by show of hands unless a poll is demanded. A poll may be demanded by any one or more shareholders present in person or by proxy and who together hold not less than 10% of the nominal value of the total issued voting shares of our company. Each holder of our ordinary shares is entitled to have one vote for each ordinary share registered in his or her name on our register of members.
A quorum required for a meeting of shareholders consists of one or more shareholders who hold at least one-third of all voting power of our share capital in issue at the date of the meeting present in person or by proxy or, if a corporation or other non-natural person, by its duly authorized representative. Shareholders’ meetings may be held annually. Each general meeting, other than an annual general meeting, shall be an extraordinary general meeting. Extraordinary general meetings may be called by a majority of our board of directors or our chairman or upon a requisition of shareholders holding at the date of deposit of the requisition not less than one-third of the aggregate voting power of our company. Advance notice of at least seven days is required for the convening of our annual general meeting and other general meetings unless such notice is waived in accordance with our articles of association.
An ordinary resolution to be passed at a meeting by the shareholders requires the affirmative vote of a simple majority of the votes attaching to all issued and outstanding shares cast at a meeting, while a special resolution also requires the affirmative vote of no less than two-thirds of the votes cast attaching to the issued and outstanding shares at a meeting. A special resolution will be required for important matters such as a change of name or making changes to our Fifth Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association.
Transfer of ordinary shares. Subject to the restrictions set out below, any of our shareholders may transfer all or any of his or her ordinary shares by an instrument of transfer in the usual or common form or any other form approved by our board of directors.
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Our board of directors may, in its absolute discretion, decline to register any transfer of any ordinary share which is not fully paid up or on which we have a lien. Our board of directors may also decline to register any transfer of any ordinary share unless:
the instrument of transfer is lodged with us, accompanied by the certificate for the ordinary shares to which it relates and such other evidence as our board of directors may reasonably require to show the right of the transferor to make the transfer;
the instrument of transfer is in respect of only one class of shares;
the instrument of transfer is properly stamped, if required;
in the case of a transfer to joint holders, the number of joint holders to whom the Ordinary Share is to be transferred does not exceed four;
the shares are free from any lien in favor of the Company; and
a fee of such maximum sum as the Nasdaq Global Market may determine to be payable or such lesser sum as our directors may from time to time require is paid to us in respect thereof.
If our directors refuse to register a transfer they shall, within two months after the date on which the instrument of transfer was lodged, send to each of the transferor and the transferee notice of such refusal.
The registration of transfers may, on 14 days’ notice being given by advertisement in one or more newspapers or by electronic means, be suspended and the register closed at such times and for such periods as our board of directors may from time to time determine, provided, however, that the registration of transfers shall not be suspended nor the register closed for more than 30 days in any year.
Liquidation. On a return of capital on winding up or otherwise (other than on conversion, redemption or purchase of ordinary shares), assets available for distribution among the holders of ordinary shares shall be distributed by a liquidator who may divide our assets for distribution among our shareholders in his discretion. The liquidator also may vest all or part of our assets in trust. None of our shareholders may be compelled to accept any shares subject to liability.
Calls on ordinary shares and forfeiture of ordinary shares. Our board of directors may from time to time make calls upon shareholders for any amounts unpaid on their ordinary shares in a notice served to such shareholders at least 14 clear days prior to the specified time of payment. The ordinary shares that have been called upon and remain unpaid are subject to forfeiture.
Redemption of ordinary shares. The Companies Act and our Fifth Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association permit us to purchase our own shares. In accordance with our Fifth Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association and provided the necessary shareholders or board approval have been obtained, we may issue shares on terms that are subject to redemption, at our option or at the option of the holders of these shares, on such terms and in such manner, including out of capital, as may be determined by our board of directors.
Variations of rights of shares. All or any of the special rights attached to any class of shares may, subject to the provisions of the Companies Act and our Fifth Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association, be varied with the written consent of the holders of a majority of the issued shares of that class or with the sanction of a special resolution passed by the holders of the shares of that class. The rights conferred upon the holders of the shares of any class issued shall not, unless otherwise expressly provided by the terms of issue of the shares of that class, be deemed to be varied by the creation or issue of further shares ranking pari passu with such existing class of shares.
Inspection of books and records. Holders of our ordinary shares have no general right under Cayman Islands law to inspect or obtain copies of our list of shareholders or our corporate records. However, we will file annual audited financial statements with the SEC. See “Incorporation of Documents by Reference”.
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Issuance of additional shares. Our Fifth Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association authorizes our board of directors to issue additional ordinary shares from time to time as our board of directors shall determine, to the extent of available authorized but unissued shares.
Anti-takeover provisions. Some provisions of our Fifth Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association may discourage, delay or prevent a change of control of our company or management that shareholders may consider favorable, including provisions that authorize our board of directors to issue preferred shares in one or more series and to designate the price, rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of such preferred shares without any further vote or action by our shareholders.
Exempted company. We are an exempted company with limited liability under the Companies Act. The Companies Act distinguishes between ordinary resident companies and exempted companies. Any company that is registered in the Cayman Islands but conducts business mainly outside of the Cayman Islands may apply to be registered as an exempted company. The requirements for an exempted company are essentially the same as for an ordinary company except that an exempted company:
does not have to file an annual return of its shareholders with the Registrar of Companies;
is not required to open its register of members for inspection;
does not have to hold an annual general meeting;
may issue negotiable or bearer shares or shares with no par value;
may obtain an undertaking against the imposition of any future taxation (such undertakings are usually given for 20 years in the first instance);
may register by way of continuation in another jurisdiction and be deregistered in the Cayman Islands;
may register as a limited duration company; and
may register as a segregated portfolio company.
“Limited liability” means that the liability of each shareholder is limited to the amount unpaid by the shareholder on the shares of the company.
Differences in corporate law
The Companies Act is modeled after that of English law but does not follow many recent English law statutory enactments. In addition, the Companies Act differs from laws applicable to United States corporations and their shareholders. Set forth below is a summary of the significant differences between the provisions of the Companies Act applicable to us and the laws applicable to companies incorporated in the State of Delaware. This summary is not intended to be a complete discussion of the respective rights and it is qualified in its entirety by reference to Delaware law and the laws of the Cayman Islands.
Mergers and similar arrangements. A merger of two or more constituent companies under Cayman Islands law requires a plan of merger or consolidation to be approved by the directors of each constituent company and authorization by (i) a special resolution of the shareholders and (ii) such other authorization, if any, as may be specified in such constituent company’s articles of association.
A merger between a Cayman parent company and its Cayman subsidiary or subsidiaries does not require authorization by a resolution of shareholders of that Cayman subsidiary if a copy of the plan of merger is given to every member of that Cayman subsidiary to be merged unless that member agrees otherwise. For this purpose, a subsidiary is a company of which at least 90% of the issued shares entitled to vote are owned by the parent company.
The consent of each holder of a fixed or floating security interest over a constituent company is required unless this requirement is waived by a court in the Cayman Islands.
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Save in certain circumstances, a dissentient shareholder of a Cayman constituent company is entitled to payment of the fair value of his shares upon dissenting to a merger or consolidation. The exercise of appraisal rights will preclude the exercise of any other rights save for the right to seek relief on the grounds that the merger or consolidation is void or unlawful.
In addition, there are statutory provisions that facilitate the reconstruction and amalgamation of companies, provided that the arrangement is approved by a majority in number of each class of shareholders and creditors with whom the arrangement is to be made, and who must in addition represent three-fourths in value of each such class of shareholders or creditors, as the case may be, that are present and voting either in person or by proxy at a meeting, or meetings, convened for that purpose. The convening of the meetings and subsequently the arrangement must be sanctioned by the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands. While a dissenting shareholder has the right to express to the court the view that the transaction ought not to be approved, the court can be expected to approve the arrangement if it determines that:
the statutory provisions as to the required majority vote have been met;
the shareholders have been fairly represented at the meeting in question and the statutory majority are acting bona fide without coercion of the minority to promote interests adverse to those of the class;
the arrangement is such that may be reasonably approved by an intelligent and honest man of that class acting in respect of his interest; and
the arrangement is not one that would more properly be sanctioned under some other provision of the Companies Act.
When a takeover offer is made and accepted by holders of 90% of the shares within four months, the offeror may, within a two-month period commencing on the expiration of such four month period, require the holders of the remaining shares to transfer such shares on the terms of the offer. An objection can be made to the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands but this is unlikely to succeed in the case of an offer which has been so approved unless there is evidence of fraud, bad faith or collusion.
If an arrangement and reconstruction is thus approved, the dissenting shareholder would have no rights comparable to appraisal rights, which would otherwise ordinarily be available to dissenting shareholders of Delaware corporations, providing rights to receive payment in cash for the judicially determined value of the shares.
Shareholders’ suits. In principle, we will normally be the proper plaintiff and as a general rule a derivative action may not be brought by a minority shareholder. However, based on English authorities, which would in all likelihood be of persuasive authority in the Cayman Islands, there are exceptions to the foregoing principle, including when:
a company acts or proposes to act illegally or ultra vires;
the act complained of, although not ultra vires, could only be effected duly if authorized by more than a simple majority vote that has not been obtained; and
those who control the company are perpetrating a “fraud on the minority.”
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Indemnification of directors and executive officers and limitation of liability. Cayman Islands law does not limit the extent to which a company’s memorandum and articles of association may provide for indemnification of officers and directors, except to the extent any such provision may be held by the Cayman Islands courts to be contrary to public policy, such as to provide indemnification against civil fraud or the consequences of committing a crime. Our Fifth Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association permit indemnification of officers and directors for losses, damages, costs and expenses incurred in their capacities as such unless such losses or damages arise from the willful neglect or default of such directors or officers. This standard of conduct is generally the same as permitted under the Delaware General Corporation Law for a Delaware corporation. We have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and executive officers that provide such persons with additional indemnification beyond that provided in our Fifth Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association. In addition, we have entered into an indemnification agreement with Perceptive, certain of Perceptive’s affiliates, and Konstantin Poukalov, in his role as Executive Chairman of our board of directors and as a Managing Director at Perceptive. The indemnification agreement provides that, among other things, Mr. Poukalov, Perceptive and its affiliates party to the agreement will be entitled to indemnification by us for claims related to actions taken on behalf of the Company in their capacities as agents.
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to our directors, officers or persons controlling us under the foregoing provisions, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.
Directors’ fiduciary duties. Under Delaware corporate law, a director of a Delaware corporation has a fiduciary duty to the corporation and its shareholders. This duty has two components: the duty of care and the duty of loyalty. The duty of care requires that a director act in good faith, with the care that an ordinarily prudent person would exercise under similar circumstances. Under this duty, a director must inform himself of, and disclose to shareholders, all material information reasonably available regarding a significant transaction. The duty of loyalty requires that a director acts in a manner he reasonably believes to be in the best interests of the corporation. He must not use his corporate position for personal gain or advantage. This duty prohibits self-dealing by a director and mandates that the best interest of the corporation and its shareholders take precedence over any interest possessed by a director, officer or controlling shareholder and not shared by the shareholders generally. In general, actions of a director are presumed to have been made on an informed basis, in good faith and in the honest belief that the action taken was in the best interests of the corporation. However, this presumption may be rebutted by evidence of a breach of one of the fiduciary duties. Should such evidence be presented concerning a transaction by a director, the director must prove the procedural fairness of the transaction, and that the transaction was of fair value to the corporation.
As a matter of Cayman Islands law, a director of a Cayman Islands company is in the position of a fiduciary with respect to the company and therefore it is considered that he or she owes the following duties to the company— a duty to act bona fide in the best interests of the company, a duty not to make a profit based on his or her position as director (unless the company permits him or her to do so) and a duty not to put himself or herself in a position where the interests of the company conflict with his or her personal interest or his or her duty to a third party. A director of a Cayman Islands company owes to the company a duty to act with skill and care. It was previously considered that a director need not exhibit in the performance of his or her duties a greater degree of skill than may reasonably be expected from a person of his or her knowledge and experience. However, English and Commonwealth courts have moved towards an objective standard with regard to the required skill and care and these authorities are likely to be followed in the Cayman Islands.
Shareholder action by written consent. Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a corporation may eliminate the right of shareholders to act by written consent by amendment to its certificate of incorporation. Cayman Islands law and our Fifth Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association provide that shareholders may approve corporate matters by way of a unanimous written resolution signed by or on behalf of each shareholder who would have been entitled to vote on such matter at a general meeting without a meeting being held.
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Shareholder proposals. Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a shareholder has the right to put any proposal before the annual meeting of shareholders, provided it complies with the notice provisions in the governing documents. A special meeting may be called by the board of directors or any other person authorized to do so in the governing documents, but shareholders may be precluded from calling special meetings.
Cayman Islands law does not provide shareholders any right to put proposal before a meeting or requisition a general meeting. However, these rights may be provided in the articles of association. Our Fifth Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association allows our shareholders holding not less than one-third of all voting power of our share capital in issue to requisition a shareholders’ meeting. Other than this right to requisition a shareholders’ meeting, our Fifth Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association do not provide our shareholders other right to put proposal before a meeting. As an exempted Cayman Islands company, we are not obliged by law to call shareholders’ annual general meetings, but we anticipate that we will hold general meetings annually.
Cumulative voting. Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, cumulative voting for elections of directors is not permitted unless the corporation’s certificate of incorporation specifically provides for it. Cumulative voting potentially facilitates the representation of minority shareholders on a board of directors since it permits the minority shareholder to cast all the votes to which the shareholder is entitled on a single director, which increases the shareholders’ voting power with respect to electing such director. There are no prohibitions in relation to cumulative voting under the laws of the Cayman Islands but our Fifth Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association do not provide for cumulative voting. As a result, our shareholders are not afforded any less protections or rights on this issue than shareholders of a Delaware corporation.
Removal of directors. Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a director of a corporation with a classified board may be removed only for cause with the approval of a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote, unless the certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. Under our Fifth Amended and Restated Articles of Association, directors may be removed with or without cause, by an ordinary resolution of our shareholders.
Transactions with interested shareholders. The Delaware General Corporation Law contains a business combination statute applicable to Delaware corporations whereby, unless the corporation has specifically elected not to be governed by such statute by amendment to its certificate of incorporation, it is prohibited from engaging in certain business combinations with an “interested shareholder” for three years following the date that such person becomes an interested shareholder. An interested shareholder generally is a person or a group who or which owns or owned 15% or more of the target’s outstanding voting share within the past three years. This has the effect of limiting the ability of a potential acquirer to make a two-tiered bid for the target in which all shareholders would not be treated equally. The statute does not apply if, among other things, prior to the date on which such shareholder becomes an interested shareholder, the board of directors approves either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the person becoming an interested shareholder. This encourages any potential acquirer of a Delaware corporation to negotiate the terms of any acquisition transaction with the target’s board of directors.
Cayman Islands law has no comparable statute. As a result, we cannot avail ourselves of the types of protections afforded by the Delaware business combination statute. However, although Cayman Islands law does not regulate transactions between a company and its significant shareholders, it does provide that such transactions must be entered into bona fide in the best interests of the company and not with the effect of constituting a fraud on the minority shareholders.
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Dissolution; winding up. Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, unless the board of directors approves the proposal to dissolve, dissolution must be approved by shareholders holding 100% of the total voting power of the corporation. Only if the dissolution is initiated by the board of directors may it be approved by a simple majority of the corporation’s outstanding shares. Delaware law allows a Delaware corporation to include in its certificate of incorporation a supermajority voting requirement in connection with dissolutions initiated by the board. Under Cayman Islands law, a company may be wound up by either an order of the courts of the Cayman Islands or by a special resolution of its members or, if the company is unable to pay its debts as they fall due, by an ordinary resolution of its members. The court has authority to order winding up in a number of specified circumstances including where it is, in the opinion of the court, just and equitable to do so. Under the Companies Act, our company may be dissolved, liquidated or wound up by a special resolution of our shareholders.
Variation of rights of shares. Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a corporation may vary the rights of a class of shares with the approval of a majority of the outstanding shares of such class, unless the certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. Under Cayman Islands law and our Fifth Amended and Restated Articles of Association, if our share capital is divided into more than one class of shares, we may vary the rights attached to any class with the written consent of the holders of a majority of the issued shares of that class or with the sanction of a special resolution passed at a general meeting of the holders of the shares of that class.
Amendment of governing documents. Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a corporation’s governing documents may be amended with the approval of a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote, unless the certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. As permitted by Cayman Islands law, our Fifth Amended and Restated Articles of Association may only be amended with a special resolution of our shareholders.
Rights of non-resident or foreign shareholders. There are no limitations imposed by our fourth memorandum and articles of association on the rights of non-resident or foreign shareholders to hold or exercise voting rights on our shares. In addition, there are no provisions in our Fifth Amended and Restated Articles of Association governing the ownership threshold above which shareholder ownership must be disclosed.
Registration rights
In October 2020, we entered into a second amended and restated shareholders agreement (the “Shareholders Agreement”) with certain of our shareholders relating to rights and obligations with respect to ownership of our share capital, including the designation of certain director nominees, certain corporate governance rights, drag along rights, tag along rights, preemptive rights, information rights, demand and piggyback registration rights and related lockup obligations. All rights under the Shareholders Agreement, other than the registration rights, terminated upon the closing of our initial public offering.
The Shareholders Agreement grants the parties thereto certain registration rights in respect of the “registrable securities” held by them, which securities include (a) the ordinary shares issued or issuable by holders of shares of our convertible preferred shares; (b) any ordinary shares issued or issuable upon conversion or exercise of any other of our securities; (c) any ordinary shares issued or issuable as a dividend or other distribution with respect to, in exchange for or in replacement of the securities referenced in (a); and (d) with respect solely to the “piggyback” registration rights described below, the issued ordinary shares. The registration of ordinary shares pursuant to the exercise of these registration rights would enable the holders thereof to sell such shares without restriction under the Securities Act when the applicable registration statement is declared effective. Under the Shareholders Agreement, we will pay all expenses relating to such registrations, including the fees of one special counsel for the participating holders, and the holders will pay all underwriting discounts and commissions relating to the sale of their shares. The Shareholders Agreement also includes customary indemnification and procedural terms. These registration rights will expire, with respect to any holder of registrable securities, at such time at which such shareholder can sell all of the ordinary shares held by it pursuant to Rule 144 of the Securities Act in any ninety-day period.
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Demand registration rights. At any time, the holders under the Shareholders Agreement of not less than 40% of the voting power of the registrable securities then outstanding may request that we prepare, file and maintain a registration statement on Form S-1 to register all or part of their registrable securities (subject to a limitation of the company only being obligated to consummate no more than two registrations pursuant to this right). Once we are eligible to use a registration statement on Form S-3, the holders under the Shareholders Agreement of at least 30% of the registrable securities then outstanding may request that we prepare, file and maintain a registration statement on Form S-3 in any jurisdiction in which we have had an underwriting public offering, but only if the aggregate offering amount of the registrable securities requested to be registered would exceed $5 million.
Piggyback registration rights. In the event that we propose to register any of our securities under the Securities Act, either for our own account or for the account of other security holders, the shareholders party to the Shareholders Agreement will be entitled to certain “piggyback” registration rights allowing them to include their registrable securities in such registration, subject to certain marketing and other limitations. As a result, whenever we propose to file a registration statement under the Securities Act other than with respect to a demand registration or a registration statement on Form S-4 or S-8, these holders will be entitled to notice of the registration and will have the right to include their registrable securities in the registration subject to certain limitations.
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DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED SHARES
The following description of our preferred shares and the description of the terms of any particular series of preferred shares that we choose to issue hereunder are not complete. These descriptions are qualified in their entirety by reference to our Fifth Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association and the certificate of designation relating to any series of preferred shares issued by us. The rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of the preferred shares of each series will be fixed by the certificate of designation relating to that series.
As of November 7, 2022, we have no preferred shares outstanding. Our Fifth Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association authorizes our board of directors to provide, from time to time out of the unissued shares, one or more series of preferred shares and to determine, with respect to any series of preferred shares, the terms and rights of that series, including:
the designation of such series, the number of preferred shares to constitute such series and the subscription price thereof if different from the par value thereof;
whether the shares of such series shall have voting rights, in addition to any voting rights provided by law, and, if so, the terms of such voting rights, which may be general or limited;
the dividends, if any, payable on such series, whether any such dividends shall be cumulative, and, if so, from what dates, the conditions and dates upon which such dividends shall be payable, the preference or relation which such dividends shall bear to the dividends payable on any shares of any other class or any other series of preferred shares;
whether the preferred shares of such series shall be subject to redemption, and, if so, the times, prices and other conditions of such redemption;
the amount or amounts payable upon preferred shares of such series upon, and the rights of the holders of such series in, a voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up, or upon any distribution of the assets;
whether the preferred shares of such series shall be subject to the operation of a retirement or sinking fund and, if so, the extent to and manner in which any such retirement or sinking fund shall be applied to the purchase or redemption of the preferred shares of such series for retirement or other corporate purposes and the terms and provisions relative to the operation thereof;
whether the preferred shares of such series shall be convertible into, or exchangeable for, shares of any other class or any other series of preferred shares or any other securities and, if so, the price or prices or the rate or rates of conversion or exchange and the method, if any, of adjusting the same, and any other terms and conditions of conversion or exchange;
the limitations and restrictions, if any, to be effective while any preferred shares of such series are outstanding upon the payment of dividends or the making of other distributions on, and upon the purchase, redemption or other acquisition of, the existing shares or shares of any other class of shares or any other series of preferred shares;
the conditions or restrictions, if any, upon the creation of indebtedness or upon the issue of any additional shares, including additional shares of such series or of any other class of shares or any other series of preferred shares; and
any other powers, preferences and relative, participating, optional and other special rights, and any qualifications, limitations and restrictions thereof.
Our board of directors may issue preferred shares without action by our shareholders to the extent authorized but unissued. Issuance of these shares may dilute the voting power of holders of ordinary shares.
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If we offer a specific class or series of preferred shares under this prospectus, we will describe the terms of the preferred shares in the prospectus supplement for such offering and will file a copy of the certificate establishing the terms of the preferred shares with the SEC. To the extent required, this description will include:
the title and stated value;
the number of shares offered, the liquidation preference per share and the purchase price;
the dividend rate(s), period(s), and/or payment date(s), or method(s) of calculation for such dividends;
whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;
the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any;
the procedures for a sinking fund, if any;
the provisions for redemption, if applicable;
any listing of the preferred shares on any securities or exchange or market;
whether the preferred shares will be convertible into our common shares, and if applicable, the conversion price (or how it will be calculated) and conversion period;
voting rights, if any, of the preferred shares;
a discussion of any material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred shares;
the relative ranking and preference of the preferred shares as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of the Company; and
any material limitations on issuance of any class or series of preferred shares ranking senior to or on a parity with the series of preferred shares as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Company.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for any series of class of preferred shares will be set forth in each applicable prospectus supplement.
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DESCRIPTION OF AMERICAN DEPOSITARY SHARES
Citibank, N.A. acts as the depositary bank for the American Depositary Shares. Citibank’s depositary offices are located at 388 Greenwich Street, New York, New York 10013. American Depositary Shares are frequently referred to as “ADSs” and represent ownership interests in securities that are on deposit with the depositary bank. ADSs may be represented by certificates that are commonly known as “American Depositary Receipts” or “ADRs.” The depositary bank typically appoints a custodian to safekeep the securities on deposit. In this case, the custodian is Citibank, N.A.—Hong Kong, located at 9/F., Citi Tower, One Bay East, 83 Hoi Bun Road, Kwun Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
We have appointed Citibank as depositary bank pursuant to a deposit agreement. A draft copy of the deposit agreement is on file with the SEC under cover of a Registration Statement on Form F-6. You may obtain a copy of the deposit agreement from the SEC’s website (www.sec.gov). Please refer to Registration Number 333-260162 when retrieving such copy.
We are providing you with a summary description of the material terms of the ADSs and of your material rights as an owner of ADSs. Summaries by their nature lack the precision of the information summarized and that the rights and obligations of an owner of ADSs will be determined by reference to the terms of the deposit agreement and not by this summary. We urge you to review the deposit agreement in its entirety. The portions of this summary description that are italicized describe matters that may be relevant to the ownership of ADSs but that may not be contained in the deposit agreement.
Each ADS represents the right to receive, and to exercise the beneficial ownership interests in, one ordinary share that is on deposit with the depositary bank and/or custodian. An ADS also represents the right to receive, and to exercise the beneficial interests in, any other property received by the depositary bank or the custodian on behalf of the owner of the ADS but that has not been distributed to the owners of ADSs because of legal restrictions or practical considerations. We and the depositary bank may agree to change the ADS-to-share ratio by amending the deposit agreement. This amendment may give rise to, or change, the depositary fees payable by ADS owners. The custodian, the depositary bank and their respective nominees will hold all deposited property for the benefit of the holders and beneficial owners of ADSs. The deposited property does not constitute the proprietary assets of the depositary bank, the custodian or their nominees. Beneficial ownership in the deposited property will under the terms of the deposit agreement be vested in the beneficial owners of the ADSs. The depositary bank, the custodian and their respective nominees will be the record holders of the deposited property represented by the ADSs for the benefit of the holders and beneficial owners of the corresponding ADSs. A beneficial owner of ADSs may or may not be the holder of ADSs. Beneficial owners of ADSs will be able to receive, and to exercise beneficial ownership interests in, the deposited property only through the registered holders of the ADSs, the registered holders of the ADSs (on behalf of the applicable ADS owners) only through the depositary bank, and the depositary bank (on behalf of the owners of the corresponding ADSs) directly, or indirectly, through the custodian or their respective nominees, in each case upon the terms of the deposit agreement.
If you become an owner of ADSs, you will become a party to the deposit agreement and therefore will be bound to its terms and to the terms of any ADR that represents your ADSs. The deposit agreement and the ADR specify our rights and obligations as well as your rights and obligations as owner of ADSs and those of the depositary bank. As an ADS holder you appoint the depositary bank to act on your behalf in certain circumstances. The deposit agreement and the ADRs are governed by New York law. However, our obligations to the holders of ordinary shares will continue to be governed by the laws of the Cayman Islands, which may be different from the laws in the United States.
In addition, applicable laws and regulations may require you to satisfy reporting requirements and obtain regulatory approvals in certain circumstances. You are solely responsible for complying with such reporting requirements and obtaining such approvals. Neither the depositary bank, the custodian, us or any of their or our respective agents or affiliates shall be required to take any actions whatsoever on your behalf to satisfy such reporting requirements or obtain such regulatory approvals under applicable laws and regulations.
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As an owner of ADSs, we will not treat you as one of our shareholders and you will not have direct shareholder rights. The depositary bank will hold on your behalf the shareholder rights attached to the ordinary shares underlying your ADSs. As an owner of ADSs you will be able to exercise the shareholder rights for the ordinary shares represented by your ADSs through the depositary bank only to the extent contemplated in the deposit agreement. To exercise any shareholder rights not contemplated in the deposit agreement you will, as an ADS owner, need to arrange for the cancellation of your ADSs and become a direct shareholder.
The manner in which you own the ADSs (e.g., in a brokerage account vs. as registered holder, or as holder of certificated vs. uncertificated ADSs) may affect your rights and obligations, and the manner in which, and extent to which, the depositary bank’s services are made available to you. As an owner of ADSs, you may hold your ADSs either by means of an ADR registered in your name, through a brokerage or safekeeping account, or through an account established by the depositary bank in your name reflecting the registration of uncertificated ADSs directly on the books of the depositary bank (commonly referred to as the “direct registration system” or “DRS”). The direct registration system reflects the uncertificated (book-entry) registration of ownership of ADSs by the depositary bank. Under the direct registration system, ownership of ADSs is evidenced by periodic statements issued by the depositary bank to the holders of the ADSs. The direct registration system includes automated transfers between the depositary bank and The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”), the central book-entry clearing and settlement system for equity securities in the United States. If you decide to hold your ADSs through your brokerage or safekeeping account, you must rely on the procedures of your broker or bank to assert your rights as an ADS owner. Banks and brokers typically hold securities such as the ADSs through clearing and settlement systems such as DTC. The procedures of such clearing and settlement systems may limit your ability to exercise your rights as an owner of ADSs. Please consult with your broker or bank if you have any questions concerning these limitations and procedures. All ADSs held through DTC will be registered in the name of a nominee of DTC. This summary description assumes you have opted to own the ADSs directly by means of an ADS registered in your name and, as such, we will refer to you as the “holder.” When we refer to “you,” we assume the reader owns ADSs and will own ADSs at the relevant time.
The registration of the ordinary shares in the name of the depositary bank or the custodian shall, to the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, vest in the depositary bank or the custodian the record ownership in the applicable ordinary shares with the beneficial ownership rights and interests in such ordinary shares being at all times vested with the beneficial owners of the ADSs representing the ordinary shares. The depositary bank or the custodian shall at all times be entitled to exercise the beneficial ownership rights in all deposited property, in each case only on behalf of the holders and beneficial owners of the ADSs representing the deposited property.
Dividends and distributions
As a holder of ADSs, you generally have the right to receive the distributions we make on the securities deposited with the custodian. Your receipt of these distributions may be limited, however, by practical considerations and legal limitations. Holders of ADSs will receive such distributions under the terms of the deposit agreement in proportion to the number of ADSs held as of the specified record date, after deduction of the applicable fees, taxes and expenses.
Distributions of cash
Whenever we make a cash distribution for the securities on deposit with the custodian, we will deposit the funds with the custodian. Upon receipt of confirmation of the deposit of the requisite funds, the depositary bank will arrange for the funds received in a currency other than U.S. dollars to be converted into U.S. dollars and for the distribution of the U.S. dollars to the holders, subject to Cayman Islands laws and regulations.
The conversion into U.S. dollars will take place only if practicable and if the U.S. dollars are transferable to the United States. The depositary bank will apply the same method for distributing the proceeds of the sale of any property (such as undistributed rights) held by the custodian in respect of securities on deposit.
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The distribution of cash will be made net of the fees, expenses, taxes and governmental charges payable by holders under the terms of the deposit agreement. The depositary bank will hold any cash amounts it is unable to distribute in a non-interest bearing account for the benefit of the applicable holders and beneficial owners of ADSs until the distribution can be effected or the funds that the depositary bank holds must be escheated as unclaimed property in accordance with the laws of the relevant states of the United States.
Distributions of shares
Whenever we make a free distribution of ordinary shares for the securities on deposit with the custodian, we will deposit the applicable number of ordinary shares with the custodian. Upon receipt of confirmation of such deposit, the depositary bank will either distribute to holders new ADSs representing the ordinary shares deposited or modify the ADS-to-ordinary share ratio, in which case each ADS holders hold will represent rights and interests in the additional ordinary shares so deposited. Only whole new ADSs will be distributed. Fractional entitlements will be sold and the proceeds of such sale will be distributed as in the case of a cash distribution.
The distribution of new ADSs or the modification of the ADS-to-ordinary share ratio upon a distribution of ordinary shares will be made net of the fees, expenses, taxes and governmental charges payable by holders under the terms of the deposit agreement. In order to pay such taxes or governmental charges, the depositary bank may sell all or a portion of the new ordinary shares so distributed.
No such distribution of new ADSs will be made if it would violate a law (e.g., the U.S. securities laws) or if it is not operationally practicable. If the depositary bank does not distribute new ADSs as described above, it may sell the ordinary shares received upon the terms described in the deposit agreement and will distribute the proceeds of the sale as in the case of a distribution of cash.
Distributions of rights
Whenever we intend to distribute rights to subscribe for additional ordinary shares, we will give prior notice to the depositary bank and we will assist the depositary bank in determining whether it is lawful and reasonably practicable to distribute rights to subscribe for additional ADSs to holders.
The depositary bank will establish procedures to distribute rights to subscribe for additional ADSs to holders and to enable such holders to exercise such rights if it is lawful and reasonably practicable to make the rights available to holders of ADSs, and if we provide all of the documentation contemplated in the deposit agreement (such as opinions to address the lawfulness of the transaction). Holders may have to pay fees, expenses, taxes and other governmental charges to subscribe for the new ADSs upon the exercise of such rights. The depositary bank is not obligated to establish procedures to facilitate the distribution and exercise by holders of rights to subscribe for new ordinary shares other than in the form of ADSs.
The depositary bank will not distribute the rights to holders if:
We do not timely request that the rights be distributed to holders or we request that the rights not be distributed to holders; or
We fail to deliver satisfactory documents to the depositary bank; or
It is not reasonably practicable to distribute the rights.
The depositary bank will sell the rights that are not exercised or not distributed if such sale is lawful and reasonably practicable. The proceeds of such sale will be distributed to holders as in the case of a cash distribution. If the depositary bank is unable to sell the rights, it will allow the rights to lapse.
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Elective distributions
Whenever we intend to distribute a dividend payable at the election of shareholders either in cash or in additional shares, we will give prior notice thereof to the depositary bank and will indicate whether we wish the elective distribution to be made available to holders. In such case, we will assist the depositary bank in determining whether such distribution is lawful and reasonably practicable.
The depositary bank will make the election available to holders only if it is reasonably practicable and if we have provided all of the documentation contemplated in the deposit agreement. In such case, the depositary bank will establish procedures to enable holders to elect to receive either cash or additional ADSs, in each case as described in the deposit agreement.
If the election is not made available to holders, holders will receive either cash or additional ADSs, depending on what a shareholder in the Cayman Islands would receive upon failing to make an election, as more fully described in the deposit agreement.
Other distributions
Whenever we intend to distribute property other than cash, ordinary shares or rights to subscribe for additional ordinary shares, we will notify the depositary bank in advance and will indicate whether we wish such distribution to be made to holders. If so, we will assist the depositary bank in determining whether such distribution to holders is lawful and reasonably practicable.
If it is reasonably practicable to distribute such property to holders and if we provide to the depositary bank all of the documentation contemplated in the deposit agreement, the depositary bank will distribute the property to holders in a manner it deems practicable.
The distribution will be made net of fees, expenses, taxes and governmental charges payable by holders under the terms of the deposit agreement. In order to pay such taxes and governmental charges, the depositary bank may sell all or a portion of the property received.
The depositary bank will not distribute the property to holders and will sell the property if:
We do not request that the property be distributed to holders or if we request that the property not be distributed to holders; or
We do not deliver satisfactory documents to the depositary bank; or
The depositary bank determines that all or a portion of the distribution to holders is not reasonably practicable. The proceeds of such a sale will be distributed to holders as in the case of a cash distribution.
Redemption
Whenever we decide to redeem any of the securities on deposit with the custodian, we will notify the depositary bank in advance. If it is practicable and if we provide all of the documentation contemplated in the deposit agreement, the depositary bank will provide notice of the redemption to the holders.
The custodian will be instructed to surrender the shares being redeemed against payment of the applicable redemption price. The depositary bank will convert into U.S. dollars upon the terms of the deposit agreement the redemption funds received in a currency other than U.S. dollars and will establish procedures to enable holders to receive the net proceeds from the redemption upon surrender of their ADSs to the depositary bank. You may have to pay fees, expenses, taxes and other governmental charges upon the redemption of your ADSs. If less than all ADSs are being redeemed, the ADSs to be redeemed will be selected by lot or on a pro rata basis, as the depositary bank may determine.
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Changes affecting ordinary shares
The ordinary shares held on deposit for the ADSs may change from time to time. For example, there may be a change in nominal or par value, split-up, cancellation, consolidation or any other reclassification of such ordinary shares or a recapitalization, reorganization, merger, consolidation or sale of assets of the Company.
If any such change were to occur, your ADSs would, to the extent permitted by law and the deposit agreement, represent the right to receive the property received or exchanged in respect of the ordinary shares held on deposit. The depositary bank may in such circumstances deliver new ADSs to you, amend the deposit agreement, the ADRs and the applicable Registration Statement(s) on Form F-6, call for the exchange of your existing ADSs for new ADSs and take any other actions that are appropriate to reflect as to the ADSs the change affecting the ordinary shares. If the depositary bank may not lawfully distribute such property to you, the depositary bank may sell such property and distribute the net proceeds to you as in the case of a cash distribution.
Issuance of ADSs upon deposit of ordinary shares
Our ordinary shares have been and will be deposited with the custodian. The depositary bank may create ADSs on your behalf if you or your broker deposit ordinary shares with the custodian. The depositary bank will deliver these ADSs to the person you indicate only after you pay any applicable issuance fees and any charges and taxes payable for the transfer of the ordinary shares to the custodian. Your ability to deposit ordinary shares and receive ADSs may be limited by U.S. and Cayman Islands legal considerations applicable at the time of deposit.
The issuance of ADSs may be delayed until the depositary bank or the custodian receives confirmation that all required approvals have been given and that the ordinary shares have been duly transferred to the custodian. The depositary bank will only issue ADSs in whole numbers.
When you make a deposit of ordinary shares, you will be responsible for transferring good and valid title to the depositary bank. As such, you will be deemed to represent and warrant that:
The ordinary shares are duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid, non-assessable and legally obtained.
All preemptive (and similar) rights, if any, with respect to such ordinary shares have been validly waived or exercised.
You are duly authorized to deposit the ordinary shares.
The ordinary shares presented for deposit are free and clear of any lien, encumbrance, security interest, charge, mortgage or adverse claim, and are not, and the ADSs issuable upon such deposit will not be, “restricted securities” (as defined in the deposit agreement).
The ordinary shares presented for deposit have not been stripped of any rights or entitlements.
If any of the representations or warranties are incorrect in any way, we and the depositary bank may, at your cost and expense, take any and all actions necessary to correct the consequences of the misrepresentations.
Transfer, combination and split up of ADRs
As an ADR holder, you will be entitled to transfer, combine or split up your ADRs and the ADSs evidenced thereby. For transfers of ADRs, you will have to surrender the ADRs to be transferred to the depositary bank and also must:
ensure that the surrendered ADR is properly endorsed or otherwise in proper form for transfer;
provide such proof of identity and genuineness of signatures as the depositary bank deems appropriate;
provide any transfer stamps required by the State of New York or the United States; and
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pay all applicable fees, charges, expenses, taxes and other government charges payable by ADR holders pursuant to the terms of the deposit agreement, upon the transfer of ADRs.
To have your ADRs either combined or split up, you must surrender the ADRs in question to the depositary bank with your request to have them combined or split up, and you must pay all applicable fees, charges and expenses payable by ADR holders, pursuant to the terms of the deposit agreement, upon a combination or split up of ADRs.
Withdrawal of ordinary shares upon cancellation of ADSs
As a holder, you will be entitled to present your ADSs to the depositary bank for cancellation and then receive the corresponding number of underlying ordinary shares at the custodian’s offices. Your ability to withdraw the ordinary shares held in respect of the ADSs may be limited by U.S. and Cayman Islands considerations applicable at the time of withdrawal. In order to withdraw the ordinary shares represented by your ADSs, you will be required to pay to the depositary bank the fees for cancellation of ADSs and any charges and taxes payable upon the transfer of the ordinary shares. You assume the risk for delivery of all funds and securities upon withdrawal. Once canceled, the ADSs will not have any rights under the deposit agreement.
If you hold ADSs registered in your name, the depositary bank may ask you to provide proof of identity and genuineness of any signature and such other documents as the depositary bank may deem appropriate before it will cancel your ADSs. The withdrawal of the ordinary shares represented by your ADSs may be delayed until the depositary bank receives satisfactory evidence of compliance with all applicable laws and regulations. Please keep in mind that the depositary bank will only accept ADSs for cancellation that represent a whole number of securities on deposit.
You will have the right to withdraw the securities represented by the ADSs at any time except for:
Temporary delays that may arise because (i) the transfer books for the ordinary shares or ADSs are closed, or (ii) ordinary shares are immobilized on account of a shareholders’ meeting or a payment of dividends.
Obligations to pay fees, taxes and similar charges.
Restrictions imposed because of laws or regulations applicable to ADSs or the withdrawal of securities on deposit.
The deposit agreement may not be modified to impair your right to withdraw the securities represented by the ADSs except to comply with mandatory provisions of law.
Voting rights
As a holder, you generally have the right under the deposit agreement to instruct the depositary bank to exercise the voting rights for the ordinary shares represented by your ADSs. The voting rights of holders of ordinary shares are described in “Description of share capital.”
At our request, the depositary bank will distribute to you any notice of shareholders’ meeting received from us together with information explaining how to instruct the depositary bank to exercise the voting rights of the securities represented by ADSs.
If the depositary bank timely receives voting instructions from a holder of ADSs, the depositary bank will vote (or instruct the Custodian to vote) the ordinary shares held on deposit in accordance with the voting instructions received from the holders of ADSs.
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Holders of ADSs in respect of which no timely voting instructions have been received shall be deemed to have instructed the depositary bank to give a discretionary proxy to a person designated by us to vote the ordinary shares represented by such holders’ ADSs; provided, that no such instructions shall be deemed given and no such discretionary proxy shall be given with respect to any matter as to which we inform the depositary bank that we do not wish such proxy to be given; provided, further, that no such discretionary proxy shall be given (x) with respect to any matter as to which we inform the depositary that (i) there exists substantial opposition, or (ii) the rights of holders of ADSs or the shareholders of our company will be materially adversely affected, and (y) in the event that the vote is on a show of hands.
Please note that the ability of the depositary bank to carry out voting instructions may be limited by practical and legal limitations and the terms of the securities on deposit. We cannot assure you that you will receive voting materials in time to enable you to return voting instructions to the depositary bank in a timely manner.
Fees and charges
As an ADS holder, you will be required to pay the following fees under the terms of the deposit agreement:
ServiceFees
•  Issuance of ADSs (e.g., an issuance of ADS upon a deposit of ordinary shares, upon a change in the ADS(s)-to-share ratio, or for any other reason specified below), excluding ADS issuances as a result of distributions of ordinary shares
Up to U.S. $0.05 per ADS issued
•  Cancellation of ADSs (e.g., a cancellation of ADSs for delivery of deposited property, upon a change in the ADS(s)-to-share ratio, or for any other reason)
Up to U.S. $0.05 per ADS cancelled
•  Distribution of cash dividends or other cash distributions (e.g., upon a sale of rights and other entitlements)
Up to U.S. $0.05 per ADS held
•  Distribution of ADSs pursuant to (i) share dividends or other free share distributions, or (ii) exercise of rights to purchase additional ADSs
Up to U.S. $0.05 per ADS held
•  Distribution of securities other than ADSs or rights to purchase additional ADSs (e.g., upon a spin-off)
Up to U.S. $0.05 per ADS held
•  Depositary services fees
Up to U.S. $0.05 per ADS held on the applicable record date(s) established by the depositary bank
Registration of ADS transfers (e.g., upon a registration of the transfer of registered ownership of ADSs, upon a transfer of ADSs into DTC and vice versa, or for any other reason)
Up to U.S. $0.05 per ADS transferred
Registration of ADS transfers (e.g., upon a registration of the transfer of registered ownership of ADSs, upon a transfer of ADSs into DTC and vice versa, or for any other reason)
Up to U.S. $0.05 per ADS transferred
As an ADS holder you will also be responsible to pay certain charges such as:
taxes (including applicable interest and penalties) and other governmental charges;
the registration fees as may from time to time be in effect for the registration of ordinary shares on the share register and applicable to transfers of ordinary shares to or from the name of the custodian, the depositary bank or any nominees upon the making of deposits and withdrawals, respectively;
certain cable, telex and facsimile transmission and delivery expenses;
the fees, expenses, spreads, taxes and other charges incurred by the depositary bank and/or service providers (which may be a division, branch or affiliate of the depositary bank) in connection with the conversion of foreign currency;
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the reasonable and customary out-of-pocket expenses incurred by the depositary bank in such conversion and/or on behalf of the holders and beneficial owners in connection with compliance with currency exchange control regulations and other regulatory requirements applicable to ordinary shares, ADSs and ADRs;
the fees, charges, costs and expenses incurred by the depositary bank, the custodian, or any nominee in connection with the ADR Program; and
the amounts payable to the depositary bank by any party to the deposit agreement pursuant to any ancillary agreement to the deposit agreement in respect of the ADR Program, the ADSs and the ADRs.
ADS fees and charges payable upon (i) the issuance of ADSs, and (ii) the cancellation of ADSs are charged to the person to whom the ADSs are issued (in the case of ADS issuances) and to the person whose ADSs are cancelled (in the case of ADS cancellations). In the case of ADSs issued by the depositary bank into DTC, the ADS issuance and cancellation fees and charges may be deducted from distributions made through DTC, and may be charged to the DTC participant(s) receiving the ADSs being issued or the DTC participant(s) holding the ADSs being cancelled, as the case may be, on behalf of the beneficial owner(s) and will be charged by the DTC participant(s) to the account of the applicable beneficial owner(s) in accordance with the procedures and practices of the DTC participants as in effect at the time. ADS fees and charges in respect of distributions and the ADS service fee are charged to the holders as of the applicable ADS record date. In the case of distributions of cash, the amount of the applicable ADS fees and charges is deducted from the funds being distributed. In the case of (i) distributions other than cash and (ii) the ADS service fee, holders as of the ADS record date will be invoiced for the amount of the ADS fees and charges and such ADS fees and charges may be deducted from distributions made to holders of ADSs. For ADSs held through DTC, the ADS fees and charges for distributions other than cash and the ADS service fee may be deducted from distributions made through DTC, and may be charged to the DTC participants in accordance with the procedures and practices prescribed by DTC and the DTC participants in turn charge the amount of such ADS fees and charges to the beneficial owners for whom they hold ADSs. In the case of (i) registration of ADS transfers, the ADS transfer fee will be payable by the ADS holder whose ADSs are being transferred or by the person to whom the ADSs are transferred, and (ii) conversion of ADSs of one series for ADSs of another series, the ADS conversion fee will be payable by the holder whose ADSs are converted or by the person to whom the converted ADSs are delivered.
In the event of refusal to pay the depositary bank fees, the depositary bank may, under the terms of the deposit agreement, refuse the requested service until payment is received or may set off the amount of the depositary bank fees from any distribution to be made to the ADS holder. Certain of the depositary fees and charges (such as the ADS services fee) may become payable shortly after the closing of the ADS offering. Note that the fees and charges you may be required to pay may vary over time and may be changed by us and by the depositary bank. You will receive prior notice of such changes. The depositary bank may reimburse us for certain expenses incurred by us in respect of the ADR program, by making available a portion of the ADS fees charged in respect of the ADR program or otherwise, upon such terms and conditions as we and the depositary bank agree from time to time.
Amendments and termination
We may agree with the depositary bank to modify the deposit agreement at any time without your consent. We undertake to give holders 30 days’ prior notice of any modifications that would materially prejudice any of their substantial rights under the deposit agreement. We will not consider to be materially prejudicial to your substantial rights any modifications or supplements that are reasonably necessary for the ADSs to be registered under the Securities Act or to be eligible for book-entry settlement, in each case without imposing or increasing the fees and charges you are required to pay. In addition, we may not be able to provide you with prior notice of any modifications or supplements that are required to accommodate compliance with applicable provisions of law.
You will be bound by the modifications to the deposit agreement if you continue to hold your ADSs after the modifications to the deposit agreement become effective. The deposit agreement cannot be amended to prevent you from withdrawing the ordinary shares represented by your ADSs (except as permitted by law).
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We have the right to direct the depositary bank to terminate the deposit agreement. Similarly, the depositary bank may in certain circumstances on its own initiative terminate the deposit agreement. In either case, the depositary bank must give notice to holders at least 30 days before termination. Until termination, your rights under the deposit agreement will be unaffected.
After termination, the depositary bank will continue to collect distributions received (but will not distribute any such property until you request the cancellation of your ADSs) and may sell the securities held on deposit. After the sale, the depositary bank will hold the proceeds from such sale and any other funds then held for the holders of ADSs in a non-interest bearing account. At that point, the depositary bank will have no further obligations to holders other than to account for the funds then held for the holders of ADSs still outstanding (after deduction of applicable fees, taxes and expenses).
In connection with any termination of the deposit agreement, the depositary may make available to owners of ADSs a means to withdraw the ordinary shares represented by ADSs and to direct the depositary of such ordinary shares into an unsponsored American depositary shares program established by the depositary. The ability to receive unsponsored American depositary shares upon termination of the deposit agreement would be subject to satisfaction of certain U.S. regulatory requirements applicable to the creation of unsponsored American depositary shares and the payment of applicable depositary fees.
Books of depositary
The depositary bank will maintain ADS holder records at its depositary office. You may inspect such records at such office during regular business hours but solely for the purpose of communicating with other holders in the interest of business matters relating to the ADSs and the deposit agreement.
The depositary bank will maintain in New York facilities to record and process the issuance, cancellation, combination, split-up and transfer of ADSs. These facilities may be closed from time to time, to the extent not prohibited by law.
Limitations on obligations and liabilities
The deposit agreement limits our obligations and the depositary bank’s obligations to you. Please note the following:
we and the depositary bank are obligated only to take the actions specifically stated in the deposit agreement without negligence or bad faith.
the depositary bank disclaims any liability for any failure to carry out voting instructions, for any manner in which a vote is cast or for the effect of any vote, provided it acts in good faith and in accordance with the terms of the deposit agreement.
the depositary bank disclaims any liability for any failure to determine the lawfulness or practicality of any action, for the content of any document forwarded to holders on our behalf or for the accuracy of any translation of such a document, for the investment risks associated with investing in ordinary shares, for the validity or worth of the ordinary shares, for any tax consequences that result from the ownership of ADSs, for the credit-worthiness of any third party, for allowing any rights to lapse under the terms of the deposit agreement, for the timeliness of any of our notices or for our failure to give notice.
we and the depositary bank will not be obligated to perform any act that is inconsistent with the terms of the deposit agreement.
we and the depositary bank disclaim any liability if we or the depositary bank, or our respective controlling persons or agents are prevented or forbidden from, or subject to any civil or criminal penalty or restraint on account of, or delayed in, doing or performing any act or thing required by the terms of the deposit agreement, by reason of any provision, present or future of any law or regulation, or by reason of present or future provision of any provision of our articles of association, or any provision of or governing the securities on deposit, or by reason of any act of God or war or other circumstances beyond our control.
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we and the depositary bank disclaim any liability by reason of any exercise of, or failure to exercise, any discretion provided for in the deposit agreement or in our articles of association or in any provisions of or governing the securities on deposit.
we and the depositary bank further disclaim any liability for any action or inaction in reliance on the advice or information received from legal counsel, accountants, any person presenting ordinary shares for deposit, any holder or authorized representatives thereof, or any other person believed by either of us in good faith to be competent to give such advice or information.
we and the depositary bank also disclaim liability for the inability by a holder to benefit from any distribution, offering, right or other benefit that is made available to holders of ordinary shares but is not, under the terms of the deposit agreement, made available to you.
we and the depositary bank may rely without any liability upon any written notice, request or other document believed to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper parties.
we and the depositary bank also disclaim liability for any consequential, indirect or punitive damages for any breach of the terms of the deposit agreement, or otherwise.
no disclaimer of any Securities Act liability is intended by any provision of the deposit agreement.
nothing in the deposit agreement gives rise to a partnership or joint venture, or establishes a fiduciary relationship, among us, the depositary bank and holders.
nothing in the deposit agreement precludes Citibank (or its affiliates) from engaging in transactions in which parties adverse to us or the ADS owners have interests, and nothing in the deposit agreement obligates Citibank to disclose those transactions, or any information obtained in the course of those transactions, to us or to the ADS owners, or to account for any payment received as part of those transactions.
As the above limitations relate to our obligations and the depositary’s obligations to you under the deposit agreement, we believe that, as a matter of construction of the clause, such limitations would likely to continue to apply to ADS holders who withdraw the ordinary shares from the ADS facility with respect to obligations or liabilities incurred under the deposit agreement before the cancellation of the ADSs and the withdrawal of the ordinary shares, and such limitations would most likely not apply to ADS holders who withdraw the ordinary shares from the ADS facility with respect to obligations or liabilities incurred after the cancellation of the ADSs and the withdrawal of the ordinary shares and not under the deposit agreement.
In any event, you will not be deemed, by agreeing to the terms of the deposit agreement, to have waived our or the depositary’s compliance with U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. In fact, you cannot waive our or the depositary’s compliance with U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
Taxes
You will be responsible for the taxes and other governmental charges payable on the ADSs and the securities represented by the ADSs. We, the depositary bank and the custodian may deduct from any distribution the taxes and governmental charges payable by holders and may sell any and all property on deposit to pay the taxes and governmental charges payable by holders. You will be liable for any deficiency if the sale proceeds do not cover the taxes that are due.
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The depositary bank may refuse to issue ADSs, to deliver, transfer, split and combine ADRs or to release securities on deposit until all taxes and charges are paid by the applicable holder. The depositary bank and the custodian may take reasonable administrative actions to obtain tax refunds and reduced tax withholding for any distributions on your behalf. However, you may be required to provide to the depositary bank and to the custodian proof of taxpayer status and residence and such other information as the depositary bank and the custodian may require to fulfill legal obligations. You are required to indemnify us, the depositary bank and the custodian for any claims with respect to taxes arising out of any refund of taxes, reduced rate of withholding or of the tax benefit obtained for or by you.
Foreign currency conversion
The depositary bank will arrange for the conversion of all foreign currency received into U.S. dollars if such conversion is practicable, and it will distribute the U.S. dollars in accordance with the terms of the deposit agreement. You may have to pay fees and expenses incurred in converting foreign currency, such as fees and expenses incurred in complying with currency exchange controls and other governmental requirements.
If the conversion of foreign currency is not practical or lawful, or if any required approvals are denied or not obtainable at a reasonable cost or within a reasonable period, the depositary bank may take the following actions in its discretion:
Convert the foreign currency to the extent practicable and lawful and distribute the U.S. dollars to holders for whom the conversion and distribution is lawful and practical.
Distribute the foreign currency to holders for whom the distribution is lawful and practicable.
Hold the foreign currency (without liability for interest) for the applicable holders.
Governing law/waiver of jury trial
The deposit agreement and the ADRs will be interpreted in accordance with the laws of the State of New York. The rights of holders of ordinary shares (including ordinary shares represented by ADSs) is governed by the laws of the Cayman Islands.
By holding an ADS or an interest therein, you irrevocably agree that any legal suit, action or proceeding against or involving us or the Depositary, arising out of or based upon the deposit agreement, ADSs or ADRs, may only be instituted in a state or federal court in New York, New York, and you irrevocably waive any objection to the laying of venue and irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of such courts with respect to any such suit, action or proceeding.
AS A PARTY TO THE DEPOSIT AGREEMENT, YOU IRREVOCABLY WAIVE, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, THE RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF THE DEPOSIT AGREEMENT, THE ADRs AND ANY TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED THEREIN (WHETHER BASED ON CONTRACT, TORT, COMMON LAW OR OTHERWISE) AGAINST US AND/OR THE DEPOSITARY BANK.
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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms and features of any debt securities which we may issue, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. The following description and any description of debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement may not be complete and is subject to, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, the indenture relating to such debt securities that we will file with the SEC in connection with a public offering of debt securities.
We will issue the debt securities offered by this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement under an indenture to be entered into between us and the trustee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement. We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of any debt securities we may offer will be filed as exhibits to the registration of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we will file with the SEC. The terms of the debt securities will include those stated in the indenture and those made part of the indenture by reference to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as in effect on the date of the indenture. The indenture will be subject to and governed by the terms of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will represent direct, unsecured obligations of the Company and will rank equally with all of our other unsecured indebtedness.
General
We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:
the title of the series of debt securities;
any limit upon the aggregate principal amount that may be issued;
the maturity date or dates;
the form of the debt securities of the series;
the applicability of any guarantees;
whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;
whether the debt securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;
if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such debt securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;
the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;
our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;
if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;
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the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;
the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;
any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the debt securities of that series and any security for our obligations with respect to such debt securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of debt securities of that series;
whether the debt securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a global security or securities;
the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such global security or securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual securities, and the depositary for such global security or securities;
if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at our option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange;
if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of debt securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;
additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;
additions to or changes in the events of default with respect to the securities and any change in the right of the trustee or the holders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such securities to be due and payable;
additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;
additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;
additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of holders of debt securities issued under the indenture;
the payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;
whether interest will be payable in cash or additional debt securities at our or the holders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;
the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we will pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the debt securities of the series to any holder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;
restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the debt securities of the series; and
any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of the indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.
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We may issue discount debt securities that provide for an amount less than the stated principal amount to be due and payable upon acceleration of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of the indenture. We may also issue debt securities in bearer form, with or without coupons. If we issue discount debt securities or debt securities in bearer form, we will describe material U.S. federal income tax considerations and other material special considerations which apply to these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.
We may issue debt securities denominated in or payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units. If we do, we will describe the restrictions, elections, and general tax considerations relating to the debt securities and the foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Exchange and/or Conversion Rights
We may issue debt securities which can be exchanged for or converted into shares of our ordinary shares or preferred shares. If we do, we will describe the terms of exchange or conversion in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to these debt securities.
Transfer and Exchange
We may issue debt securities that will be represented by either:
“book-entry,” which means that there will be one or more global securities registered in the name of a depositary or a nominee of a depositary; or
“certificated securities,” which means that they will be represented by a certificate issued in definitive registered form.
We will specify in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular offering whether the debt securities offered will be book-entry or certificated securities.
Certificated Debt Securities
If we issue certificated debt securities, a holder may transfer or exchange such debt securities at the trustee’s office or at the paying agent’s office or agency in accordance with the terms of the indenture. A holder will not be charged a service charge for any transfer or exchange of certificated debt securities but may be required to pay an amount sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with such transfer or exchange.
A holder may effect the transfer of certificated debt securities and of the right to receive the principal of, premium, and/or interest, if any, on the certificated debt securities only by surrendering the certificate representing the certificated debt securities and having us or the trustee issue a new certificate to the new holder.
Global Securities
If we decide to issue debt securities in the form of one or more global securities, then we will register the global securities in the name of the depositary for the global securities or the nominee of the depositary, and the global securities will be delivered by the trustee to the depositary for credit to the accounts of the holders of beneficial interests in the debt securities.
The prospectus supplement will describe the specific terms of the depositary arrangement for debt securities of a series that are issued in global form. None of our Company, the trustee, any payment agent or the security registrar will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in a global debt security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to these beneficial ownership interests.
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No Protection in the Event of Change of Control
Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of debt securities, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control).
Covenants
We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement any restrictive covenants applicable to any issue of debt securities.
Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets
Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement, we will not, in any transaction or series of transactions, merge or consolidate with or into, or sell, assign, convey or transfer, lease or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our properties and assets, unless:
either (A) if the transaction or series of transactions is a merger or consolidation, the Company shall be the surviving person of such merger or consolidation, or (B) the person formed by such consolidation or into which the Company is merged or to which the properties and assets of the Company are transferred shall be a corporation or entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes organized and existing under the laws of the United States of America, any state thereof or the District of Columbia, or a corporation or comparable legal entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes organized under the laws of a foreign jurisdiction and shall expressly assume by a supplemental indenture executed and delivered to the trustee, in form reasonably satisfactory to the trustee, all of the obligations of the Company (including, without limitation, the obligation to pay the principal of, and premium and interest, if any, on, the securities and the performance of the other covenants) under the indenture as supplemented, and in each case, the indenture shall remain in full force and effect; and
immediately before and immediately after giving effect to such transaction or series of transactions on a pro forma basis (including, without limitation, any indebtedness incurred or anticipated to be incurred in connection with or in respect of such transaction or series of transactions), no default or event of default shall have occurred and be continuing.
Events of Defaults
Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, the following events will be events of default under the indenture with respect to debt securities of any series:
we default in the payment of any principal of, or premium, if any, on, the debt securities when it becomes due and payable at maturity, upon acceleration, redemption or otherwise;
we default in the payment of any interest on any debt security of a series when the same becomes due and payable, and the default continues for a period of 30 days;
we default in observance or performance of any other covenant in the debt securities of a series or the indenture for 60 days after written notice from the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities of such series then outstanding, which notice must specify the default, demand that it be remedied and state that the notice is a “Notice of Default”;
certain events involving bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of the Company or any of our significant subsidiaries; and
any other event of default provided for in such series of debt securities as may be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.
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Holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of any series then outstanding have the right to waive any existing default or event of default with respect to such series or compliance with any provision of the indenture (with respect to such series) or the debt securities of such series with written notice to the trustee. Upon any such waiver, such default with respect to such series shall cease to exist, and any event of default with respect to such series arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured for every purpose of the indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or event of default or impair any right consequent thereto.
If an event of default (other than an event of default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization with respect to the Company) occurs, and is continuing, then the trustee, by written notice, or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may declare that the entire principal amount, plus the premium, if any, of all the debt securities of that series then outstanding plus accrued and unpaid interest to the date of acceleration are immediately due and payable. At any time after the acceleration, but before a judgment or decree based on such acceleration is obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of outstanding debt securities of such series may rescind and annul such acceleration if:
all existing events of default (other than nonpayment of accelerated principal, premium or interest) have been cured or waived;
all lawful interest on overdue installments of interest and overdue principal have been paid; and
the rescission would not conflict with any judgment or decree.
In addition, if the acceleration occurs at any time when we have outstanding indebtedness which is senior to the debt securities, the payment of the principal amount of outstanding debt securities may be subordinated in right of payment to the prior payment of any amounts due under the senior indebtedness, in which case the holders of debt securities will be entitled to payment under the terms prescribed in the instruments evidencing the senior indebtedness and the indenture.
If an event of default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization with respect to the Company occurs, such principal, premium, if any, and interest amount with respect to all the debt securities of that series shall be due and payable immediately without any declaration or other act on part of the trustee or the holders of debt securities of that series.
The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of a series will have the right to waive any existing default or compliance with any provision of the indenture or the debt securities of that series and to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, subject to certain limitations specified in the indenture.
No holder of any debt security of a series will have any right to institute any proceeding with respect to the indenture or for any remedy under the indenture, unless:
the holder gives to the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default with respect to the debt securities of that series;
the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the affected series make a written request to the trustee;
the holder or holders offer to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to the trustee against any loss, liability or expense to be incurred in compliance with such request;
the trustee does not comply with the request within 60 days after such request; and
the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the affected series do not give the trustee a direction inconsistent with such request during such 60-day period.
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Modification and Waiver
From time to time, we and the trustee may, without the consent of holders of the debt securities of one or more series, amend the indenture or the debt securities of one or more series, or supplement the indenture, for certain specified purposes, including:
to provide that the surviving entity following a change of control of the Company permitted under the indenture will assume all of our obligations under the indenture and debt securities;
to provide for certificated debt securities in addition to uncertificated debt securities;
to comply with any requirements of the SEC under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939;
to cure any mistake, ambiguity, defect or inconsistency, or make any other change that does not materially and adversely affect the rights of any holder;
to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture; and
to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment of a successor trustee under the indenture with respect to one or more series and to add to or change any of the provisions of the indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts by more than one trustee.
From time to time we and the trustee may, with the consent of holders of not less than a majority of the aggregate principal amount of an outstanding series of debt securities, amend or supplement the indenture or the debt securities series, or waive compliance in a particular instance by us with any provision of the indenture or the debt securities. We may not, however, without the consent of each holder affected by such action, modify or supplement the indenture or the debt securities or waive compliance with any provision of the indenture or the debt securities in order to:
reduce the amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement, or waiver to the indenture or such debt security;
reduce the rate of or change the time for payment of interest on any of the debt securities;
reduce the principal of or change the stated maturity of the debt securities, or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation;
make any debt security payable in money other than that stated in the debt security;
change the amount or time of any payment required by the debt securities or reduce the premium payable upon any redemption of the debt securities, or change the time before which no such redemption may be made;
waive a default or event of default in the payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, any debt securities (except a rescission of acceleration of the debt securities of any series by the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);
waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt securities or change any provision with respect to redemption of debt securities;
take any other action otherwise prohibited by the indenture to be taken without the consent of each holder affected by the action; or
make any changes to the above provisions or the acceleration provisions of the indenture, except to increase any percentage of debt securities the holders of which must consent to any matter.
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Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances
The indenture permits us, at any time, to elect to discharge our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities by following certain procedures described in the indenture. These procedures will allow us either:
to defease and be discharged from any and all of our obligations with respect to any debt securities except for the following obligations (which discharge is referred to as “legal defeasance”):
to replace temporary or mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen debt securities;
the rights, powers, trusts, duties and immunities of the trustee; or
to maintain an office or agency in respect of the debt securities and to hold monies for payment in trust; or
to be released from our obligations with respect to the debt securities under certain covenants contained in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants which may be contained in an applicable supplemental indenture (which release is referred to as “covenant defeasance”).
In order to exercise either defeasance option, we must irrevocably deposit with the trustee or other qualifying trustee, in trust for that purpose:
money;
U.S. Government Obligations (as described below) or Foreign Government Obligations (as described below) which through the scheduled payment of principal and interest in accordance with their terms will provide, not later than the due date of any payment, money; or
a combination of money and/or U.S. Government Obligations and/or Foreign Government Obligations sufficient in the written opinion of a nationally-recognized firm of independent accountants to provide money;
which in each case specified above, provides an amount sufficient to pay the principal of, premium, if any, and interest, if any, on the debt securities of the series, on the scheduled due dates or on a selected date of redemption in accordance with the terms of the indenture.
In addition, defeasance may be effected only if, among other things:
in the case of either legal or covenant defeasance, we deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel, as specified in the indenture;
in the case of legal defeasance, we deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling to the effect that, or there has been a change in any applicable federal income tax law with the effect that or there has been a change in any applicable U.S. federal income tax law with the effect that, and such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the outstanding debt securities of such series or persons will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes solely as a result of such legal defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner, including as a result of prepayment, and at the same times as would have been the case if legal defeasance had not occurred;
in the case of covenant defeasance, we deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the outstanding debt securities will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of covenant defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if covenant defeasance had not occurred; and
certain other conditions described in the indenture are satisfied.
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If we fail to comply with our remaining obligations under the indenture and any applicable supplemental indenture after a covenant defeasance of the indenture and any applicable supplemental indenture, and the debt securities are declared due and payable because of the occurrence of any undefeased event of default, the amount of money and/or U.S. Government Obligations and/or Foreign Government Obligations on deposit with the trustee could be insufficient to pay amounts due under the debt securities of the affected series at the time of acceleration. We will, however, remain liable in respect of these payments.
The term “U.S. Government Obligations” as used in the above discussion means direct non-callable obligations of, or non-callable obligations guaranteed by, the United States of America for the payment of which obligation or guarantee the full faith and credit of the United States of America is pledged.
The term “Foreign Government Obligations” as used in the above discussion means, with respect to securities that are denominated in a foreign currency, (i) direct obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a person controlled or supervised by, or acting as an agency or instrumentality of, such government, the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by such government, which, in either case under clauses (i) and (ii), are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.
Regarding the Trustee
We will identify the trustee with respect to any series of debt securities in the prospectus supplement relating to the applicable debt securities. You should note that if the trustee becomes a creditor of the Company, the indenture and the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 limit the rights of the trustee to obtain payment of claims in certain cases, or to realize on certain property received in respect of any such claim, as security or otherwise. The trustee and its affiliates may engage in, and will be permitted to continue to engage in, other transactions with us and our affiliates. If, however, the trustee acquires any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, it must eliminate such conflict or resign.
The holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of any series may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for exercising any remedy available to the trustee. If an event of default occurs and is continuing, the trustee, in the exercise of its rights and powers, must use the degree of care and skill of a prudent person under the same circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to that provision, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture at the request of any of the holders of the debt securities, unless they have offered to the trustee indemnity or security against the costs, expenses and liabilities which may be incurred therein or thereby.
Governing Law
The indenture and the debt securities, including any claim or controversy arising out of or relating to the indenture or the securities, will be governed by the laws of the State of New York.
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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
We may issue warrants for the purchase of our ordinary shares and/or preferred shares and/or ordinary shares or preferred shares in the form of ADSs and/or debt securities in one or more series together with other securities or separately, as described in each applicable prospectus supplement. Below is a description of certain general terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer. Particular terms of the warrants will be described in the applicable warrant agreements and the applicable prospectus supplement for the warrants.
The applicable prospectus supplement will contain, where applicable, the following terms of and other information relating to the warrants:
the specific designation and aggregate number of, and the price at which we will issue, the warrants;
the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;
if applicable, the exercise price for shares of our ordinary shares and the number of ordinary shares to be received upon exercise of the warrants;
if applicable, the exercise price for shares of our preferred shares, the number of preferred shares to be received upon exercise, and a description of that class or series of our preferred shares;
if applicable, the exercise price for our debt securities, the number of debt securities to be received upon exercise, and a description of such debt securities;
the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will begin and the date on which that right will expire or, if the warrants may not be continuously exercised throughout that period, the specific date or dates on which the warrants may be exercised;
whether the warrants will be issued in fully registered form or bearer form, in definitive or global form or in any combination of these forms, although, in any case, the form of a warrant included in a unit will correspond to the form of the unit and of any security included in that unit;
any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences;
the identity of the warrant agent for the warrants and of any other depositaries, execution or paying agents, transfer agents, registrars or other agents;
the proposed listing, if any, of the warrants or any securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants on any securities exchange;
if applicable, the date from and after which the warrants and the ordinary shares and/or preferred shares and/or debt securities will be separately transferable;
if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;
information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;
the anti-dilution provisions of the warrants, if any;
any redemption or call provisions;
whether the warrants are to be sold separately or with other securities as parts of units; and
any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the warrants.
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As of November 7, 2022, we had the following warrants outstanding:
QED Therapeutics, Inc. holds a warrant to purchase 347,569 of our ordinary shares at an exercise price equal to $0.000017100448 per share. This warrant expires on October 17, 2031.
MyoKardia Inc., now a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bristol-Myers Squibb, holds a warrant exercisable for 170,000 ordinary shares of Lian Cardiovascular, our wholly-owned subsidiary, with an exercise price of $275 per share, which may be exercised, in whole or in part, at any time.
Tarsus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. holds one warrant, exercisable upon the achievement of certain specified milestone events for 78,373 of our ordinary shares, each exercisable at an exercise price equal to $0.000017100448. The warrant expires on October 17, 2031.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for any warrants will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS
We may issue units consisting of any combination of the other types of securities offered under this prospectus in one or more series. We may evidence each series of units by unit certificates that we will issue under a separate agreement. We may enter into unit agreements with a unit agent. Each unit agent will be a bank or trust company that we select. We will indicate the name and address of the unit agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of units.
The following description, together with the additional information included in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the general features of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. You should read any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the series of units being offered, as well as the complete unit agreements that contain the terms of the units. Specific unit agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and we will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from another report that we file with the SEC, the form of each unit agreement relating to units offered under this prospectus.
If we offer any units, certain terms of that series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following, as applicable:
the title of the series of units;
identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units;
the price or prices at which the units will be issued;
the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable;
a discussion of certain United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the units; and
any other terms of the units and their constituent securities.
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TAXATION
The following is a summary of the material Cayman Islands, People’s Republic of China and United States federal income tax consequences relevant to an investment in the ADSs and ordinary shares. Tax considerations applicable to other securities will be described in the related prospectus supplement. The discussion is not intended to be, nor should it be construed as, legal or tax advice to any particular prospective purchaser. The discussion is based on laws and relevant interpretations thereof as of the date of this prospectus, all of which are subject to change or different interpretations, possibly with retroactive effect. The discussion does not address U.S. state or local tax laws, or tax laws of jurisdictions other than the Cayman Islands, the People's Republic of China and the United States. You should consult your own tax advisors with respect to the consequences of acquisition, ownership and disposition of the ADSs and ordinary shares.
Cayman Islands taxation
The Cayman Islands currently levies no taxes on individuals or corporations based upon profits, income, gains or appreciation and there is no taxation in the nature of inheritance tax or estate duty. There are no other taxes likely to be material to us or our shareholders or ADS holders levied by the government of the Cayman Islands except for stamp duties which may be applicable on instruments executed in, or after execution brought within the jurisdiction of the Cayman Islands. The Cayman Islands is not party to any double tax treaties that are applicable to any payments made to or by our company. There are no exchange control regulations or currency restrictions in the Cayman Islands.
China taxation
We are a holding company incorporated in the Cayman Islands.
Under the Enterprise Income Tax Law of China (the “EIT Law”) and its implementation rules, an enterprise established outside of China with a “de facto management body” within China is considered a “resident enterprise,” and will be subject to the enterprise income tax (“EIT”) on its global income at the rate of 25%. The implementation rules define the term “de facto management body” as the body that exercises full and substantial control and overall management over the business, productions, personnel, accounts and properties of an enterprise. In 2009, the State Administration of Taxation issued SAT Circular 82, which provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the “de facto management body” of a Chinese-controlled enterprise that is incorporated offshore is located in China. Although this circular only applies to offshore enterprises controlled by Chinese enterprises or Chinese enterprise groups, not those controlled by Chinese individuals or foreigners, the criteria set forth in the circular may reflect the State Administration of Taxation’s general position on how the “de facto management body” text should be applied in determining the tax resident status of all offshore enterprises. According to SAT Circular 82, all offshore enterprises controlled by a Chinese enterprise or a Chinese enterprise will be regarded as a Chinese tax resident by virtue of having its “de facto management body” in China only if all of the following conditions are met:
(i)the primary location of the day-to-day operational management is in China;
(ii)decisions relating to the enterprise’s financial and human resource matters are made or are subject to approval by organizations or personnel in China;
(iii)the enterprise’s primary assets, accounting books and records, company seals, and board and shareholder resolutions, are located or maintained in China; and
(iv)at least 50% of voting board members or senior executives habitually reside in China.
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We believe that neither we nor any of its subsidiaries outside of China is a Chinese resident enterprise for Chinese tax purposes. We are not controlled by a Chinese enterprise or Chinese enterprise group, and we do not believe that we meet all of the conditions above. We are a company incorporated outside China. As a holding company, some of its key assets are located, and its records (including the resolutions of its board of directors and the resolutions of its shareholders) are maintained, outside China. For the same reasons, we believe our other subsidiaries outside of China are also not Chinese resident enterprises for Chinese tax purposes. However, the tax resident status of an enterprise is subject to determination by the Chinese tax authorities and uncertainties remain with respect to the interpretation of the term “de facto management body.”
If the Chinese tax authorities determine that we are a Chinese resident enterprise for EIT purposes, we may be required to withhold tax at a rate of 10% on dividends we pay to our shareholders, including holders of our ADSs, that are non-resident enterprises. In addition, non-resident enterprise shareholders (including our ADS holders) may be subject to a 10% Chinese withholding tax on gains realized on the sale or other disposition of ADS or Ordinary Shares, if such income is treated as sourced from within China. Furthermore, gains derived by our non-Chinese individual shareholders from the sale of our shares and ADSs may be subject to a 20% Chinese withholding tax. It is unclear whether our non-Chinese individual shareholders (including our ADS holders) would be subject to any Chinese tax (including withholding tax) on dividends received by such non-Chinese individual shareholders in the event we are determined to be a Chinese resident enterprise. If any Chinese tax were to apply to dividends realized by non-Chinese individuals, it will generally apply at a rate of 20%. The Chinese tax liability may be reduced under applicable tax treaties. However, it is unclear whether our non-Chinese shareholders would be able to claim the benefits of any tax treaty between their country of tax residence and China in the event that we are treated as a Chinese resident enterprise.
See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China and Our International Operations—If we are classified as a China resident enterprise for China income tax purposes, such classification could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-Chinese shareholders or ADS holders” in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021.
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Pursuant to the EIT Law and its implementation rules, if a non-resident enterprise has not set up an organization or establishment in China, or has set up an organization or establishment but the income derived has no actual connection with such organization or establishment, it will be subject to a withholding tax on its Chinese-sourced income at a rate of 10%. Pursuant to the Arrangement between Mainland China and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and Tax Evasion on Income, the tax rate in respect to dividends paid by a Chinese enterprise to a Hong Kong enterprise is reduced to 5% from a standard rate of 10% if the Hong Kong enterprise is deemed the beneficial owner of any dividend paid by a Chinese enterprise by Chinese tax authorities and directly holds at least 25% of the Chinese enterprise. Pursuant to the Notice of the State Administration of Taxation on the Issues concerning the Application of the Dividend Clauses of Tax Agreements (“SAT Circular 81”), a Hong Kong resident enterprise must meet the following conditions, among others, in order to enjoy the reduced tax rate: (i) it must directly own the required percentage of equity interests and voting rights in the Chinese resident enterprise; and (ii) it must have directly owned such percentage in the Chinese resident enterprise throughout the 12 months prior to receiving the dividends. Additionally, China has started an anti-tax treaty shopping practice since the issuance of Circular 601 in 2009. On February 3, 2018, the State Administration of Taxation released the Announcement on Issues concerning the “Beneficial Owner” in Tax Treaties (“PN9”), which provides guidelines in determining a beneficial owner qualification under dividends, interest and royalty articles of tax treaties. Chinese tax authorities in general often scrutinize fact patterns case by case in determining foreign shareholders’ qualifications for a reduced treaty withholding tax rate, especially against foreign companies that are perceived as being conduits or lacking commercial substance. Furthermore, according to the Administrative Measures for Non-Resident Enterprises to Enjoy Treatments under Tax Treaties, which became effective in January 2020, where non-resident enterprises judge by themselves that they meet the conditions for entitlement to reduced tax rate according to tax treaties, they may enjoy such entitlement after reporting required information to competent tax authorities provided that they shall collect and retain relevant documents for future reference and inspections. Accordingly, our LianBio Hong Kong subsidiary may be able to enjoy the 5% tax rate for the dividends it receives from its Chinese incorporated subsidiaries if they satisfy the conditions prescribed under SAT Circular 81, PN9 and other relevant tax rules and regulations and complete the necessary government formalities. However, according to SAT Circular 81, if the relevant tax authorities determine our transactions or arrangements are for the primary purpose of enjoying a favorable tax treatment, the relevant tax authorities may adjust the favorable tax rate on dividends in the future.
If our Cayman Islands holding company, LianBio, is not deemed to be a Chinese resident enterprise, holders of our ADSs and Ordinary Shares who are not Chinese residents will not be subject to Chinese income tax on dividends distributed by us. With respect to gains realized from the sale or other disposition of the shares or ADSs, there is a possibility that a Chinese tax authority may impose an income tax under the indirect transfer rules set out under SAT Circular 7, except that such transaction could fall under the safe harbor thereunder. Please see “Risk Factors – Risks Related to Doing Business in China and Our International Operations – We and our shareholders face uncertainties in China with respect to indirect transfers of equity interests in China resident enterprises” in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Material United States federal income tax considerations
The following discussion, subject to the limitations set forth below, describes the material U.S. federal income tax consequences for a U.S. Holder (as defined below) of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our ADSs. It is not a comprehensive description of all tax considerations that may be relevant to a particular person’s decision to acquire our ADSs. This discussion is limited to U.S. Holders who hold our ADSs as capital assets (generally, property held for investment) and who are initial purchasers of our ADSs pursuant to an offering. This discussion is based on the Code, U.S. Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder and administrative and judicial interpretations thereof, and the income tax treaty between the PRC and the United States (the “U.S.-PRC Tax Treaty”), as available and in effect on the date hereof, all of which are subject to change or differing interpretations, possibly with retroactive effect, which could affect the tax consequences described herein. In addition, this summary is based, in part, upon representations made by the depositary to us and assumes that the deposit agreement, and all other related agreements, will be performed in accordance with their terms.
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For purposes of this summary, a “U.S. Holder” is a beneficial owner of an ADS that is for U.S. federal income tax purposes:
a citizen or individual resident of the United States;
a corporation (or any other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) organized in or under the laws of the United States or any state thereof, or the District of Columbia;
an estate the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or
a trust if (i) it has a valid election in effect to be treated as a U.S. person for U.S. federal income tax purposes or (ii) a U.S. court can exercise primary supervision over its administration and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all of its substantial decisions.
Except as explicitly set forth below, this summary does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation that may be applicable to U.S. Holders subject to special rules, including:
banks or other financial institutions;
insurance companies;
pension plans;
cooperatives;
real estate investment trusts;
regulated investment companies;
grantor trusts;
tax-exempt organizations (including private foundations);
governmental organizations;
persons holding our ADSs through a partnership (including an entity or arrangement treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) or S corporation;
dealers or traders in securities, commodities or currencies (including those who use a mark-to-market method of tax accounting);
persons whose functional currency for U.S. federal income tax purposes is not the U.S. dollar;
certain former citizens and former long-term residents of the United States;
persons who acquired our ADS pursuant to the exercise of any employee stock option of otherwise as compensation;
persons holding our ADSs as part of a position in a straddle or as part of a hedging, wash sale, constructive sale, conversion or integrated transaction for U.S. federal income tax purposes; or
direct, indirect or constructive owners of 10% or more of our total combined voting power or value.
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In addition, this summary does not address the 3.8% Medicare contribution tax imposed on certain net investment income, U.S. federal estate and gift tax and alternative minimum tax consequences of the acquisition, ownership, and disposition of ADSs. We have not received nor do we expect to seek a ruling from the IRS regarding any matter discussed herein. No assurance can be given that the IRS would not assert, or that a court would not sustain, a position contrary to any of those set forth below. Each prospective investor should consult its own tax advisors with respect to the U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. tax consequences of acquiring, owning and disposing of our ADSs.
If an entity or arrangement treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds ADSs, the tax treatment of the partnership and a partner in such partnership generally will depend on the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. Such partner or partnership should consult its own tax advisors as to the U.S. federal income tax consequences of acquiring, owning and disposing of ADSs.
PROSPECTIVE INVESTORS SHOULD CONSULT THEIR OWN TAX ADVISORS WITH REGARD TO THE PARTICULAR TAX CONSEQUENCES APPLICABLE TO THEIR SITUATIONS AS WELL AS THE APPLICATION OF ANY U.S. FEDERAL, STATE, LOCAL, NON-U.S. OR OTHER TAX LAWS, INCLUDING GIFT AND ESTATE TAX LAWS.
ADSs
A U.S. Holder of ADSs will generally be treated, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, as the owner of the underlying Ordinary Shares that such ADSs represent. Accordingly, no gain or loss will be recognized if a U.S. Holder exchanges ADSs for the underlying shares represented by those ADSs.
The U.S. Treasury has expressed concern that parties to whom ADSs are released before shares are delivered to the depositary or intermediaries in the chain of ownership between holders and the issuer of the security underlying the ADSs may be taking actions that are inconsistent with the claiming of foreign tax credits by U.S. Holders of ADSs. These actions would also be inconsistent with the claiming of the reduced rate of tax, described below, applicable to dividends received by certain non-corporate U.S. Holders. Accordingly, the creditability of non-U.S. withholding taxes (if any), and the availability of the reduced tax rate for dividends received by certain non-corporate U.S. Holders, each described below, could be affected by actions taken by such parties or intermediaries.
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Taxation of dividends
As described in “Dividend Policy” above, we do not currently anticipate paying any distributions on our ADSs in the foreseeable future. However, subject to the discussion below in “ —Passive foreign investment company considerations,” to the extent there are any distributions made with respect to our ADSs, the gross amount of any distribution on the ADSs (including withheld taxes, if any) made out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits (as determined for U.S. federal income tax purposes) will generally be taxable to a U.S. Holder as ordinary dividend income on the date such distribution is actually or constructively received. Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will be treated as a non-taxable return of capital to the extent of the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in the ADSs and thereafter as capital gain. However, because we do not maintain calculations of our earnings and profits in accordance with U.S. federal income tax accounting principles, U.S. Holders should expect to treat distributions paid with respect to the ADSs as dividends. Dividends paid to corporate U.S. Holders generally will not qualify for the dividends received deduction that may otherwise be allowed under the Code. This discussion assumes that distributions on the ADSs, if any, will be paid in U.S. dollars. Dividends paid to a non-corporate U.S. Holder by a “qualified foreign corporation” may be subject to reduced rates of U.S. federal income taxation if certain holding period and other requirements are met. A qualified foreign corporation generally includes a foreign corporation (other than one that a PFIC in the taxable year or the preceding taxable year in which such dividends are paid) if (1) its Ordinary Shares (or ADSs backed by Ordinary Shares) are readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States or (2) it is eligible for benefits under a comprehensive U.S. income tax treaty that includes an exchange of information program and which the U.S. Treasury Department has determined is satisfactory for these purposes. Our ADSs are listed on the Nasdaq Global Market, which is an established securities market in the United States. Therefore, IRS guidance indicates that the ADSs will be readily tradable for these purposes. The United States does not have a comprehensive income tax treaty with the Cayman Islands.
In addition, non-corporate U.S. Holders will not be eligible for reduced rates of U.S. federal income taxation on any dividends received from us if we are a PFIC in the taxable year in which such dividends are paid or in the preceding taxable year.
In the event that we were deemed to be a Chinese resident enterprise under the EIT Law (see “China taxation” above), U.S. Holders might be subject to Chinese withholding taxes on dividends paid with respect to our ADSs. In that case, subject to certain conditions and limitations, such Chinese withholding tax may be treated as a foreign tax eligible for credit against a U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability under the U.S. foreign tax credit rules. For purposes of calculating the U.S. foreign tax credit, dividends paid on the ADSs will be treated as income from sources outside the United States and will generally constitute passive category income. An eligible U.S. Holder who does not elect to claim a foreign tax credit for Chinese tax withheld may instead be eligible to claim a deduction, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, in respect of such withholding but only for the year in which such U.S. Holder elects to do so for all creditable foreign income taxes. The U.S. foreign tax credit rules are complex. U.S. Holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the foreign tax credit or deduction rules in light of their particular circumstances.
Taxation of capital gains
Subject to the discussion in “–Passive foreign investment company considerations” below, upon the sale, exchange, or other taxable disposition of ADSs, a U.S. Holder generally will recognize gain or loss on the taxable sale or exchange in an amount equal to the difference between the amount realized on such sale or exchange and the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in the ADSs. The initial tax basis of ADSs to a U.S. Holder will generally be the U.S. Holder’s U.S. dollar purchase price for the ADS.
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Subject to the discussion in “ – Passive foreign investment company considerations” below, such gain or loss will be capital gain or loss. Under current law, capital gains of non-corporate U.S. Holders derived with respect to capital assets held for more than one year are generally eligible for reduced rates of taxation. The deductibility of capital losses may be subject to limitations. Capital gain or loss, if any, recognized by a U.S. Holder generally will be treated as U.S. source income or loss for U.S. foreign tax credit purposes. U.S. Holders are encouraged to consult their own tax advisors regarding the availability of the U.S. foreign tax credit in consideration of their particular circumstances.
If we were treated as a Chinese resident enterprise for EIT Law purposes and Chinese tax were imposed on any gain (see “China taxation” above), and if a U.S. Holder is eligible for the benefits of the U.S.-China Tax Treaty, the U.S. Holder may be able to treat such gain as Chinese source gain under the treaty for U.S. foreign tax credit purposes. A U.S. Holder will be eligible for U.S.-China Tax Treaty benefits if (for purposes of the treaty) such U.S. Holder is a resident of the United States and satisfies the other requirements specified in the U.S.-China Tax Treaty. Because the determination of treaty benefit eligibility is fact-intensive and depends upon a U.S. Holder’s particular circumstances, U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding U.S.-China Tax Treaty benefit eligibility. U.S. Holders are also encouraged to consult their own tax advisors regarding the tax consequences in the event Chinese tax were to be imposed on a disposition of our ADSs, including the availability of the U.S. foreign tax credit and the ability and whether to treat any gain as Chinese source gain for the purposes of the U.S. foreign tax credit in consideration of their particular circumstances. On the other hand, if we are not deemed to be a Chinese resident enterprise for EIT law purposes and we directly or indirectly hold Chinese subsidiaries, with respect to gains realized from the sale or other disposal of our shares or ADS, there is a possibility that a Chinese tax authority may impose an income tax under the indirect transfer rules set out under SAT Circular 7, except that such transaction could fall under the safe harbor thereunder. Please refer to “Risk Factors – Risks Related to Doing Business in China and Our International Operations – We and our shareholders face uncertainties in China with respect to indirect transfers of equity interests in China resident enterprises” in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Passive foreign investment company considerations
Status as a PFIC
The rules governing PFICs can have adverse tax effects on U.S. Holders. We generally will be classified as a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes if, for any taxable year, either: (1) 75% or more of our gross income consists of certain types of passive income (the Income Test), or (2) the average value (determined on a quarterly basis), of our assets that produce, or are held for the production of, passive income (including cash) is 50% or more of the value of all of our assets (the Asset Test).
Passive income generally includes dividends, interest, rents and royalties (other than certain rents and royalties derived in the active conduct of a trade or business), annuities and gains from assets that produce passive income. If a non-U.S. corporation owns at least 25% by value of the stock of another corporation, the non-U.S. corporation is treated for purposes of the PFIC tests as owning its proportionate share of the assets of the other corporation and as receiving directly its proportionate share of the other corporation’s income.
Whether we are a PFIC for any taxable year is a factual determination that can be made only after the end of each taxable year applying principles, methodologies and legal rules that in some circumstances are unclear and subject to varying interpretation and which depends on the composition and nature of our income and the composition, nature and value of our assets for the relevant taxable year. The fair market value of our assets for purposes of the PFIC rules (including goodwill) may be determined in large part by reference to the quarterly market price of our ADSs, which is likely to fluctuate significantly after an offering. In addition, the composition of our income and assets will be affected by how, and how quickly, we use the cash proceeds from an offering in our business.
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We do not believe we were a PFIC for the taxable year ended December 31, 2021; however, we believe we will be classified as a PFIC in the current taxable year ending December 31, 2022. Our actual PFIC status for any taxable year will not be determined until after the end of such taxable year as our PFIC status is a factual determination made annually after the end of each taxable year. Because we hold, and will continue to hold after an offering, a substantial amount of passive assets, including cash, and because the value of our assets (including goodwill) may be determined by reference to the market value of our ADSs and ordinary shares, which may be especially volatile due to the early stage of our product candidates, we cannot give any assurance that we will not be a PFIC for any future taxable year. Even if we determine that we are not a PFIC for a taxable year, there can be no assurance that the IRS will agree with our determination and that the IRS would not successfully challenge our position.
If we are a PFIC in any taxable year with respect to which a U.S. Holder owns ADSs, we generally will continue to be treated as a PFIC with respect to such U.S. Holder in all succeeding taxable years, regardless of whether we continue to meet the tests described above, unless we cease to be a PFIC and the U.S. Holder makes the “deemed sale election” described below in “U.S. federal income tax treatment of a shareholder of a PFIC.” If a U.S. Holder makes a deemed sale election, such U.S. Holder will be deemed to have sold the shares held by such U.S. Holder at their fair market value, and any gain from such deemed sale would be subject to the rules described below. After the deemed sale election, so long as we do not become a PFIC in a subsequent taxable year, a U.S. Holder’s ADSs subject to such election will not be treated as shares in a PFIC, and the rules described below with respect to any “excess distributions” or any gain from an actual sale or other disposition of the ADSs will not apply. Prospective investors should consult their own tax advisors regarding our PFIC status for the current or any future taxable years.
U.S. federal income tax treatment of a shareholder of a PFIC
If we are a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. Holder owns our ADSs, the U.S. Holder, absent certain elections (including the mark-to-market and QEF elections described below), generally will be subject to adverse rules (regardless of whether we continue to be a PFIC) with respect to (1) any “excess distributions” (generally, any distributions received by the U.S. Holder on its ADSs in a taxable year that are greater than 125% of the average annual distributions received by the U.S. Holder in the three preceding taxable years or, if shorter, the U.S. Holder’s holding period for its ADSs) and (2) any gain realized on the sale or other disposition, including in certain circumstances a pledge, of its ADSs.
Under these adverse rules (a) the excess distribution or gain will be allocated ratably over the U.S. Holder’s holding period, (b) the amount allocated to the current taxable year and any taxable year prior to the first taxable year in which we are a PFIC will be taxed as ordinary income and (c) the amount allocated to each other taxable year during the U.S. Holder’s holding period in which we were a PFIC (i) will be subject to tax at the highest rate of tax in effect for the applicable category of taxpayer for that year and (ii) will be subject to an interest charge at a statutory rate with respect to the resulting tax attributable to each such other taxable year. Non-corporate U.S. Holders will not be eligible for reduced rates of U.S. federal income taxation on any dividends received from us if we were a PFIC in the taxable year in which such dividends are paid or in the preceding taxable year.
If we are a PFIC, a U.S. Holder will generally be treated as owning a proportionate amount (by value) of stock or shares owned by us in any direct or indirect subsidiaries that are also PFICs (“lower-tier PFICs”), and will be subject to similar adverse rules with respect to any distributions we receive from, and dispositions we make of, the stock or shares of such subsidiaries. U.S. Holders are urged to consult their tax advisors about the application of the PFIC rules to any of our subsidiaries.
If we are classified as a PFIC and then cease to be so classified, a U.S. Holder may make an election (a “deemed sale election”) to be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as having sold such U.S. Holder’s ADSs on the last day of our taxable year during which we were a PFIC. A U.S. Holder that makes a deemed sale election would then cease to be treated as owning stock in a PFIC by reason of ownership of our ADSs. However, gain recognized as a result of making the deemed sale election would be subject to the adverse rules described above and loss would not be recognized.
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PFIC “mark-to-market” election
In certain circumstances if we are a PFIC for any taxable year, a U.S. Holder of our ADSs can be subject to rules different from those described above by making a mark-to-market election with respect to its ADSs, provided that the ADSs are “marketable.” ADSs will be marketable if they are “regularly traded” on a “qualified exchange” or other market within the meaning of applicable U.S. Treasury Regulations. ADSs will be treated as “regularly traded” in any calendar year in which more than a de minimis quantity of the ADSs are traded on a qualified exchange on at least 15 days during each calendar quarter. A “qualified exchange” includes a national securities exchange that is registered with the SEC.
Under current law, the mark-to-market election may be available to U.S. Holders of ADSs if the ADSs are listed on the Nasdaq Global Market (which constitutes a qualified exchange) and such ADSs are “regularly traded” for purposes of the mark-to-market election (for which no assurance can be given).
A U.S. Holder that makes a mark-to-market election must include in gross income, as ordinary income, for each taxable year that we are a PFIC, an amount equal to the excess, if any, of the fair market value of the U.S. Holder’s ADSs at the close of the taxable year over the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in its ADSs. Accordingly, such mark-to-market election may accelerate the recognition of income without a corresponding receipt of cash. An electing U.S. Holder may also claim an ordinary loss deduction for the excess, if any, of the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in its ADSs over the fair market value of its ADSs at the close of the taxable year, but this deduction is allowable only to the extent of any net mark-to-market gains previously included in income. The adjusted tax basis of a U.S. Holder’s ADSs will be adjusted to reflect amounts included in gross income or allowed as a deduction because of such mark-to-market election. If a U.S. Holder makes an effective mark-to-market election, gains from an actual sale or other disposition of our ADSs in a year in which we are a PFIC will be treated as ordinary income, and any losses incurred on a sale or other disposition of our ADSs will be treated as ordinary losses to the extent of any net mark-to-market gains previously included in income.
If we are a PFIC for any taxable year in which a U.S. Holder owns our ADSs but before a mark-to-market election is made, the adverse PFIC rules described above will apply to any mark-to-market gain recognized in the year the election is made. Otherwise, a mark-to-market election will be effective for the taxable year for which the election is made and all subsequent taxable years unless the ADSs are no longer regularly traded on a qualified exchange or the IRS consents to the revocation of the election.
A mark-to-market election is not permitted for the shares of any of our subsidiaries that are also classified as PFICs (unless the shares of such subsidiaries are themselves marketable). Prospective investors should consult their own tax advisors regarding the availability of, and the procedure for making, a mark-to-market election, and whether making the election would be advisable, including in light of their particular circumstances.
PFIC “QEF” election
Alternatively, a U.S. Holder can be subject to rules different from those described above by electing to treat us (and each lower-tier PFIC, if any) as a qualified electing fund under Section 1295 of the Code (a “QEF”) in the first taxable year that we (and each lower-tier PFIC) are treated as a PFIC with respect to the U.S. Holder. A U.S. Holder must make the QEF election for each PFIC by attaching a separate properly completed IRS Form 8621 for each PFIC to the U.S. Holder’s timely filed U.S. federal income tax return.
If the Company is a PFIC, we currently do not intend to provide the information necessary for a U.S. Holder to make a QEF election. U.S. Holders are urged to consult their own tax advisors in this regard.
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If you make a QEF election with respect to a PFIC, you will be taxed currently on your pro rata share of the PFIC’s ordinary earnings and net capital gain (at ordinary income and capital gain rates, respectively) for each taxable year that the entity is classified as a PFIC, even if no distributions were received. If a U.S. Holder makes a QEF election with respect to us, any distributions paid by us out of our earnings and profits that were previously included in the U.S. Holder’s income under the QEF election would not be taxable to the U.S. Holder. A U.S. Holder will increase its tax basis in its ADSs by an amount equal to any income included under the QEF election and will decrease its tax basis by any amount distributed on the ADSs that is not included in the U.S. Holder’s income. In addition, a U.S. Holder will recognize capital gain or loss on the disposition of the ADSs in an amount equal to the difference between the amount realized and the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in the ADSs, as determined in U.S. dollars. Once made, a QEF election remains in effect unless invalidated or terminated by the IRS or revoked by the U.S. Holder. A QEF election can be revoked only with the consent of the IRS. A U.S. Holder will not be currently taxed on the ordinary income and net capital gain of a PFIC with respect to which a QEF election was made for any taxable year of the non-U.S. corporation for which such corporation does not satisfy the PFIC Income Test or Asset Test.
U.S. Holders should note that if they make QEF elections with respect to us and any lower-tier PFIC, they may be required to pay U.S. federal income tax with respect to their ADSs for any taxable year significantly in excess of any cash distributions received on the ADSs for such taxable year. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisers regarding the advisability of, and procedure for, making QEF elections in their particular circumstances.
PFIC information reporting requirements
If we are a PFIC in any year with respect to a U.S. Holder, such U.S. Holder will be required to file an annual information return on IRS Form 8621 regarding distributions received on, and any gain realized on the disposition of, our ADSs, and certain U.S. Holders will be required to file an annual information return (also on IRS Form 8621) relating to their ownership of our ADSs.
Controlled Foreign Corporation Considerations
If a U.S. Holder is treated as owning (directly, indirectly or constructively) at least 10% of either the total value or total combined voting power of our ADSs or Ordinary Shares, such U.S. Holder may be treated as a “United States shareholder” with respect to each “controlled foreign corporation” (“CFC”) in our group (if any). We believe that we were a CFC for the taxable years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021. In addition, we believe that certain of our Subsidiaries were CFCs for the taxable years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021. We believe we will likely be a CFC for the current tax year ending December 31,2022. Further, because our group includes at least one U.S. subsidiary that is classified as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, certain of our non-U.S. subsidiaries will be treated as CFCs (regardless of whether we are a CFC) for the current year. A United States shareholder of a CFC may be required to annually report and include in its U.S. taxable income its pro rata share of “Subpart F income,” “global intangible low-taxed income” and investments in U.S. property by such CFC, regardless of whether we make any distributions. An individual that is a United States shareholder with respect to a CFC generally would not be allowed certain tax deductions or foreign tax credits that would be allowed to a United States shareholder that is a U.S. corporation. We cannot provide any assurances that we will assist investors in determining whether we are or any of our non-U.S. subsidiaries is treated as a CFC or whether such investor is treated as a United States shareholder with respect to any such CFC. Further, we cannot provide any assurances that we will furnish to any United States shareholders information that may be necessary to comply with the reporting and tax paying obligations discussed above. For investors that are United States shareholders, failure to comply with these reporting obligations may subject them to significant monetary penalties and may prevent the statute of limitations with respect to their U.S. federal income tax return for the year for which reporting was due from starting. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the potential application of these rules to their investment in our ADSs or ordinary shares.
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THE U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX RULES RELATING TO PFICS ARE COMPLEX. PROSPECTIVE INVESTORS SHOULD CONSULT THEIR OWN TAX ADVISORS WITH RESPECT TO THE OPERATION OF THE PFIC RULES AND RELATED REPORTING REQUIREMENTS IN LIGHT OF THEIR PARTICULAR CIRCUMSTANCES, INCLUDING THE ADVISABILITY OF MAKING ANY ELECTION THAT MAY BE AVAILABLE.
U.S. backup withholding and information reporting
Backup withholding and information reporting requirements may apply to distributions on, and proceeds from the sale or disposition of, our ADSs that are held by U.S. Holders. The payor may be required to withhold U.S. backup withholding tax on payments made with respect to the ADSs to a U.S. Holder, other than an exempt recipient, if the U.S. Holder fails to furnish its correct taxpayer identification number or otherwise fails to comply with, or establish an exemption from, the backup withholding requirements. Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Amounts withheld as backup withholding may be credited against a U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability (if any) or refunded provided the required information is furnished to the IRS in a timely manner.
Certain U.S. Holders of specified foreign financial assets with an aggregate value in excess of the applicable dollar threshold are required to report information relating to their holding of our ADSs, subject to certain exceptions (including an exception for shares held in accounts maintained by certain financial institutions) with their tax return for each year in which they hold our ADSs. U.S. Holders should consult their own tax advisors regarding the information reporting obligations that may arise from their acquisition, ownership or disposition of our ADSs.
THE ABOVE DISCUSSION DOES NOT COVER ALL TAX MATTERS THAT MAY BE OF IMPORTANCE TO A PARTICULAR INVESTOR. PROSPECTIVE INVESTORS ARE STRONGLY URGED TO CONSULT THEIR OWN TAX ADVISORS ABOUT THE TAX CONSEQUENCES OF AN INVESTMENT IN OUR ADSs.
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LEGAL MATTERS
We are being represented by Ropes & Gray LLP with respect to legal matters of United States federal securities and New York State law. Certain legal matters in connection with any offering made pursuant to this prospectus will be passed upon for the underwriters by a law firm named in the applicable prospectus supplement. The validity of securities offered in any offering made pursuant to this prospectus and legal matters as to Cayman Islands law will be passed upon for us by Travers Thorp Alberga. Certain legal matters as to Chinese law will be passed upon for us by Zhong Lun Law Firm. Ropes & Gray LLP may rely upon Travers Thorp Alberga with respect to matters governed by Cayman Islands law and Zhong Lun Law Firm with respect to matters governed by Chinese law.
EXPERTS
The consolidated financial statements of LianBio as of December 31, 2021 and 2020, and for each of the years in the two-year period ended December 31, 2021, have been incorporated by reference herein in reliance upon the report of KPMG LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We have filed a registration statement on Form S-3 with the SEC for the securities offered by this prospectus. This prospectus does not include all of the information contained in the registration statement. You should refer to the registration statement and its exhibits for additional information.
We are required to file annual and quarterly reports, current reports, proxy statements, and other information with the SEC. We make these documents publicly available, free of charge, on our website at www.lianbio.com as soon as reasonably practicable after filing such documents with the SEC. The information contained on our website is not part of this prospectus. You can read our SEC filings, including the registration statement, on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.
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INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” certain information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information about us by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be a part of this prospectus, and information in documents that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede information in this prospectus. We incorporate by reference into this prospectus the documents listed below and any future filings, including all filings made after the date of the filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus is part and prior to the effectiveness of such registration statement, made by us with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, except for information “furnished” under Items 2.02, 7.01 or 9.01 on Form 8-K or other information “furnished” to the SEC which is not deemed filed and not incorporated in this prospectus, in each case, until the offering described under the registration statement is terminated or completed:
Our annual report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021 filed with the SEC on March 31, 2022; and
our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarterly periods ended March 31, 2022, June 30, 2022 and September 30, 2022, as filed with the SEC on May 12, 2022, August 11, 2022, and November 10, 2022, respectively;
our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on April 8, 2022 and June 10, 2022;
portions of the Revised Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on April 28, 2022 that are incorporated by reference into Part III of our Annual Report on 10-K for the year December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on March 31, 2022; and
the description of share capital contained in the Registration Statement on Form 8-A, as filed with the SEC on October 20, 2021 under Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act, as supplemented by the description of our share capital contained in Exhibit 4.15 in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, as filed with the SEC on March 31, 2022, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description.
Any statement contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus or the prospectus supplement will be deemed modified, superseded or replaced for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus modifies, supersedes or replaces such statement.
Upon request, either orally or in writing, we will provide, without charge, to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a copy of this prospectus is delivered, a copy of the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus. You may request a copy of these filings and any exhibits we have specifically incorporated by reference as an exhibit in this prospectus, at no cost, by writing to us at the following address:
LianBio
103 Carnegie Center Drive
Suite 309
Princeton, New Jersey, USA 08540
+1 (609) 486-2308
Copies of these filings are also available, without charge, on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov and on our website at www.lianbio.com as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed electronically with the SEC. The information contained on our website is not part of this prospectus.
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PART II
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS
Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution
The following table sets forth the estimated expenses incurred in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered, other than underwriting discounts and commissions (if any).
ItemAmount to
be paid
SEC registration fee
$55,100 
FINRA filing fee
$75,500 
Printing and engraving expenses
(1)
Legal fees and expenses
(1)
Accounting fees and expenses
(1)
Transfer agent fees and expenses
(1)
Miscellaneous expenses
(1)
Total
$(1)
__________________
(1)These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.
Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.
Cayman Islands law does not limit the extent to which a company’s articles of association may provide for indemnification of officers and directors, except to the extent any such provision may be held by the Cayman Islands courts to be contrary to public policy, such as to provide indemnification against civil fraud or the consequences of committing a crime.
The Fifth Amended and Restated Articles of Association provides that we shall indemnify our directors and officers (each an indemnified person) against all actions, proceedings, costs, charges, expenses, losses, damages or liabilities incurred or sustained by such indemnified person, other than by reason of such person’s own willful neglect or default or fraud, in or about the conduct of our company’s business or affairs (including as a result of any mistake of judgment) or in the execution or discharge of his duties, powers, authorities or discretions, including without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, any costs, expenses, losses or liabilities incurred by such indemnified person in defending (whether successfully or otherwise) any civil proceedings concerning our company or its affairs in any court whether in the Cayman Islands or elsewhere.
We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and executive officers, pursuant to which we agree to indemnify our directors and executive officers against certain liabilities and expenses incurred by such persons in connection with claims made by reason of their being such a director or officer. In addition, we have entered into an indemnification agreement with Perceptive, certain of Perceptive’s affiliates, and Konstantin Poukalov, in his role as Executive Chairman of our board of directors and as a Managing Director at Perceptive. The indemnification agreement provides that, among other things, Mr. Poukalov, Perceptive and its affiliates party to the agreement will be entitled to indemnification by us for claims related to actions taken on behalf of the Company in their capacities as agents.
Any underwriting agreement that we may enter into in connection with an offering of securities pursuant to this registration statement may also provide for indemnification by the underwriters of us and our officers and directors for certain liabilities, including liabilities arising under the Securities Act, but only to the extent that such liabilities are caused by information relating to the underwriters furnished to us in writing expressly for use in this registration statement and certain other disclosure documents.
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Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to our directors, officers or persons controlling us under the foregoing provisions, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC, such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.
We maintain directors’ and officers’ liability insurance for the benefit of our directors and officers.
Item 16. Exhibits
The following is a list of exhibits filed as part of this registration statement.
INDEX TO EXHIBITS
Exhibit
No.
Description
1.1*Form of Underwriting Agreement
3.1
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
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4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15*Specimen Certificate evidencing Preferred Shares
4.16*Form of Debt Security
4.17*Form of Ordinary Shares Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate
4.18*Form of Preferred Shares Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate
4.19*Form of Debt Securities Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate
4.20
4.21*Form of Unit Agreement (including Forms of Unit Certificates)
5.1
5.2
23.1
23.2
23.3
23.4
24.1
25.1
99.1
107
__________________
*To be filed, if necessary, subsequent to the effectiveness of this registration statement by an amendment to this registration statement or incorporated by reference pursuant to a Current Report on Form 8-K in connection with the offering of securities.
Item 17. Undertakings
Each of the undersigned registrants hereby undertakes:
(1)To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:
(i)To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;
(ii)To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and
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(iii)To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement.
Provided, however, that:
(A)Paragraphs (a)(1)(i) and (a)(1)(ii) of this section do not apply if the registration statement is on Form S-8, and the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement; and
(B)Paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) of this section do not apply if the registration statement is on Form S-3 or Form F-3 and the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.
(C)Provided further, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i) and (a)(1)(ii) do not apply if the registration statement is for an offering of asset-backed securities on Form S-1 or Form S-3, and the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment is provided pursuant to Item 1100(c) of Regulation AB.
(2)That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(3)To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.
(4)That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:
(i)If the registrant is relying on Rule 430B:
(A)Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and
(B)Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5) or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date; or
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(ii)If the registrant is subject to Rule 430C, each prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) as part of a registration statement relating to an offering, other than registration statements relying on Rule 430B or other than prospectuses filed in reliance on Rule 430A, shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the date it is first used after effectiveness. Provided, however , that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such first use, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such date of first use.
(iii)That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser: (i) any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424; (ii) any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant; (iii) the portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and (iv) any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.
(5)That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(6)That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933:
(i)the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of the registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in the form of prospectus filed by the Registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the time it was declared effective; and
(ii)each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
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SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in Princeton, New Jersey, on November 10, 2022.
LIANBIO
By:
/s/Yizhe Wang, Ph. D.
Name:Yizhe Wang, Ph. D.
Title:Chief Executive Officer
POWER OF ATTORNEY
The undersigned directors and officers of LianBio hereby appoint each of Yizhe Wang and Yi Larson, and each of them singly, as attorney-in-fact for the undersigned, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for and in the name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any or all amendments (including post-effective amendments) and supplements to this registration statement on Form S-3 and any and all related registration statements pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the SEC, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorney-in-fact and agent, or its substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
NameTitleDate
/s/Yizhe Wang, Ph. D.Chief Executive Officer and Director (Principal Executive Officer)November 10, 2022
Yizhe Wang, Ph. D.
/s/Yi Larson
Chief Financial Officer
(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)
November 10, 2022
Yi Larson
/s/Konstantin PoukalovChairman of the BoardNovember 10, 2022
Konstantin Poukalov
/s/Adam StoneDirectorNovember 10, 2022
Adam Stone
/s/Neil Kumar, Ph. D.DirectorNovember 10, 2022
Neil Kumar, Ph. D.
/s/Tassos GianakakosDirectorNovember 10, 2022
Tassos Gianakakos
/s/Susan SilbermannDirectorNovember 10, 2022
Susan Silbermann
/s/Wei Wei ChenDirectorNovember 10, 2022
Wei Wei Chen
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SIGNATURE OF AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE OF THE REGISTRANT
Pursuant to the requirements of Section 6(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, the undersigned has signed this registration statement, solely in its capacity as the duly authorized representative of LianBio, in Princeton, New Jersey, on November 10, 2022.
Yizhe Wang, Ph. D.
(Authorized LianBio Representative)
By:  /s/Yizhe Wang, Ph. D.
Name:Yizhe Wang, Ph. D.
Title:Chief Executive Officer
II-7
Document
Exhibit 107
Calculation of Filing Fee Tables
Form S-3
(Form Type)
LianBio
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
Table 1: Newly Registered and Carry Forward Securities



Security TypeSecurity Class TitleFee Calculation or Carry Forward Rule
Amount Registered(1)
Proposed Maximum Offering Price Per Unit(2)
Maximum Aggregate Offering Price
Fee Rate
Amount of Registration Fee
Carry Forward Form Type
Carry Forward File Number
Carry Forward Initial Effective Date
Filing Fee Previously Paid in Connection with Unsold Securities to be Carried Forward
Newly Registered Securities
Fees to Be PaidEquity
Ordinary shares, par value $0. 000017100448 per share(3)
457(o)
Fees to Be PaidEquity
Preferred Shares(4)
457(o)
Fees to Be PaidDebt
Debt Securities(5)
457(o)
Fees to Be PaidEquity
Warrants(6)
457(o)
Fees to Be PaidEquity
Units(7)
457(o)
Fees to Be PaidUnallocated (Universal) ShelfUnallocated (Universal) Shelf457(o)(1)$500,000,0000.0001102$55,100
Fees Previously Paid
Carry Forward Securities
Carry Forward Securities
Total Offering Amounts
500000000(8)
$55,100
Total Fees Previously Paid
Total Fee Offsets
Net Fee Due
$55,100
(1)The amount to be registered consists of up to $500,000,000 of an indeterminate amount of ordinary shares, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants and/or units that may be offered and sold from time to time in one or more offerings. Pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), this registration statement also covers any additional securities that may be offered or issued in connection with any stock split, stock dividend or pursuant to anti-dilution provisions of any of the securities. Separate consideration may or may not be received for securities that are issuable upon conversion, exercise or exchange of other securities.
(2)The proposed maximum initial offering prices per unit will be determined, from time to time, by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the securities registered under this registration statement.



(3)Includes such indeterminate amount of ordinary shares as may be issued from time to time at indeterminate prices or upon conversion of debt securities, or upon exercise of warrants registered hereby, as the case may be. The ordinary shares may be represented by American Depositary Shares (“ADSs”), each of which currently represents one ordinary share. A separate registration statement on Form F-6 (File No. 333-260162) has been filed for the registration of ADSs issuable upon deposit of the ordinary shares. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or together with other securities registered hereunder.
(4)Includes such indeterminate amount of preferred shares as may be issued from time to time at indeterminate prices or upon conversion of debt securities and/or preferred stock registered hereby, or upon exercise of warrants registered hereby, as the case may be.
(5)Includes such indeterminate principal amount of debt securities as may be issued from time to time at indeterminate prices or upon exercise of warrants registered hereby, as the case may be.
(6)Warrants may be sold separately or together with any of the securities registered hereby and may be exercisable for shares of ordinary shares, debt securities, or units registered hereby. Because the warrants will provide a right only to purchase such securities offered hereunder, no additional registration fee is required.
(7)Each unit will be issued under a unit agreement and will represent an interest in two or more securities registered pursuant to this registration statement, which may or may not be separable from one another. Because the units will provide a right only to purchase such securities offered hereunder, no additional registration fee is required.
(8)Estimated solely for purposes of computing the registration fee. No separate consideration will be received for (i) ordinary shares or other securities of the registrant that may be issued upon conversion of, or in exchange for, convertible or exchangeable debt securities and/or preferred shares registered hereby or (ii) preferred shares, ordinary shares, debt securities or units that may be issued upon exercise of warrants registered hereby, as the case may be.

Document
Exhibit 4.20

LIANBIO
and
U.S. BANK TRUST COMPANY, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, as Trustee
INDENTURE
Dated as of [ ], [ ]



TABLE OF CONTENTS
ARTICLE 1. DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE1
1.1.DEFINITIONS.1
1.2.INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE OF TRUST INDENTURE ACT.5
1.3.RULES OF CONSTRUCTION.6
ARTICLE 2. THE SECURITIES6
2.1.ISSUABLE IN SERIES.6
2.2.ESTABLISHMENT OF TERMS OF SERIES OF SECURITIES.6
2.3.EXECUTION AND AUTHENTICATION.9
2.4.REGISTRAR AND PAYING AGENT.10
2.5.PAYING AGENT TO HOLD ASSETS IN TRUST.11
2.6.SECURITYHOLDER LISTS.11
2.7.TRANSFER AND EXCHANGE.11
2.8.REPLACEMENT SECURITIES.12
2.9.OUTSTANDING SECURITIES.12
2.10.WHEN TREASURY SECURITIES DISREGARDED; DETERMINATION OF HOLDERS’ ACTION.
13
2.11.TEMPORARY SECURITIES.13
2.12.CANCELLATION.13
2.13.PAYMENT OF INTEREST; DEFAULTED INTEREST; COMPUTATION OF INTEREST.
14
2.14.CUSIP NUMBER.14
2.15.PROVISIONS FOR GLOBAL SECURITIES.15
2.16.PERSONS DEEMED OWNERS.16
ARTICLE 3. REDEMPTION16
3.1.NOTICES TO TRUSTEE.16
3.2.SELECTION BY TRUSTEE OF SECURITIES TO BE REDEEMED.16
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3.3.NOTICE OF REDEMPTION.17
3.4.EFFECT OF NOTICE OF REDEMPTION.18
3.5.DEPOSIT OF REDEMPTION PRICE.19
3.6.SECURITIES REDEEMED IN PART.19
ARTICLE 4. COVENANTS19
4.1.PAYMENT OF SECURITIES.19
4.2.SEC REPORTS.19
4.3.WAIVER OF STAY, EXTENSION OR USURY LAWS.20
4.4.COMPLIANCE CERTIFICATE.20
4.5.CORPORATE EXISTENCE.21
ARTICLE 5. SUCCESSOR CORPORATION21
5.1.LIMITATION ON CONSOLIDATION, MERGER AND SALE OF ASSETS.21
5.2.SUCCESSOR PERSON SUBSTITUTED.22
ARTICLE 6. DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES22
6.1.EVENTS OF DEFAULT.22
6.2.ACCELERATION.24
6.3.REMEDIES.24
6.4.WAIVER OF PAST DEFAULTS AND EVENTS OF DEFAULT.24
6.5.CONTROL BY MAJORITY.25
6.6.LIMITATION ON SUITS.25
6.7.RIGHTS OF HOLDERS TO RECEIVE PAYMENT.26
6.8.COLLECTION SUIT BY TRUSTEE.26
6.9.TRUSTEE MAY FILE PROOFS OF CLAIM.26
6.10.PRIORITIES.27
6.11.UNDERTAKING FOR COSTS.27
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ARTICLE 7. TRUSTEE27
7.1.DUTIES OF TRUSTEE.27
7.2.RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE.29
7.3.INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE.30
7.4.TRUSTEE’S DISCLAIMER.30
7.5.NOTICE OF DEFAULT.31
7.6.REPORTS BY TRUSTEE TO HOLDERS.31
7.7.COMPENSATION AND INDEMNITY.31
7.8.REPLACEMENT OF TRUSTEE.32
7.9.SUCCESSOR TRUSTEE BY CONSOLIDATION, MERGER OR CONVERSION.
33
7.10.ELIGIBILITY; DISQUALIFICATION.33
7.11.PREFERENTIAL COLLECTION OF CLAIMS AGAINST COMPANY.34
7.12.PAYING AGENTS.34
ARTICLE 8. AMENDMENTS, SUPPLEMENTS AND WAIVERS34
8.1.WITHOUT CONSENT OF HOLDERS.34
8.2.WITH CONSENT OF HOLDERS.35
8.3.COMPLIANCE WITH TRUST INDENTURE ACT.36
8.4.REVOCATION AND EFFECT OF CONSENTS.36
8.5.NOTATION ON OR EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES.37
8.6.TRUSTEE TO SIGN AMENDMENTS, ETC.37
ARTICLE 9. DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE38
9.1.DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE.38
9.2.LEGAL DEFEASANCE.38
9.3.COVENANT DEFEASANCE.38
9.4.CONDITIONS TO LEGAL DEFEASANCE OR COVENANT DEFEASANCE.39
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9.5.DEPOSITED MONEY AND U.S. AND FOREIGN GOVERNMENT OBLIGATIONS TO BE HELD IN TRUST; OTHER MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS.

40
9.6.REINSTATEMENT.41
9.7.MONEYS HELD BY PAYING AGENT.41
9.8.MONEYS HELD BY TRUSTEE.41
ARTICLE 10. MISCELLANEOUS42
10.1.TRUST INDENTURE ACT CONTROLS.42
10.2.NOTICES.42
10.3.COMMUNICATIONS BY HOLDERS WITH OTHER HOLDERS.45
10.4.CERTIFICATE AND OPINION AS TO CONDITIONS PRECEDENT.45
10.5.STATEMENT REQUIRED IN CERTIFICATE AND OPINION.45
10.6.RULES BY TRUSTEE AND AGENTS.45
10.7.BUSINESS DAYS; LEGAL HOLIDAYS; PLACE OF PAYMENT.46
10.8.GOVERNING LAW.46
10.9.NO ADVERSE INTERPRETATION OF OTHER AGREEMENTS.46
10.10.NO RECOURSE AGAINST OTHERS.46
10.11.SUCCESSORS.46
10.12.MULTIPLE COUNTERPARTS.46
10.13.TABLE OF CONTENTS, HEADINGS, ETC.47
10.14.SEVERABILITY.47
10.15.SECURITIES IN A FOREIGN CURRENCY OR IN EUROS.47
10.16.JUDGMENT CURRENCY.48
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CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE
TIA SECTIONINDENTURE SECTION
310(a)(1)(2)(5)7.10
310(a)(3)(4)Inapplicable
310(b)7.8; 7.10
310(c)Inapplicable
311(a)(b)7.11
311(c)Inapplicable
312(a)2.6
312(b)(c)10.3
313(a)(b)7.6
313(c)7.6; 10.2
313(d)7.6
314(a)4.2; 4.4; 10.2
314(b)N/A
314(c)(1)(2)10.4; 10.5
314(c)(3)Inapplicable
314(d)Inapplicable
314(e)10.5
314(f)Inapplicable
315(a)7.1, 7.2
315(b)7.5; 10.2
315(c)7.1
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TIA SECTIONINDENTURE SECTION
315(d)7.1; 7.2
315(e)6.11
316(a)(last sentence)2.10
316(a)(1)(A)6.5
316(a)(1)(B)6.4
316(a)(2)8.2
316(b)6.7
316(c)8.4
317(a)(1)6.8
317(a)(2)6.9
317(b)2.5; 7.12
318(a)10.1
Note: This Cross-Reference Table shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be a part of the Indenture.
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INDENTURE, dated as of [ ], [ ] by and between LianBio, an exempted company incorporated in the Cayman Islands, as Issuer (the “Company”) and U.S. Bank Trust Company, National Association, as Trustee (the “Trustee”).
RECITALS OF THE COMPANY
The Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance from time to time of its debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness to be issued in one or more series (the “Securities”), as herein provided, up to such principal amount as may from time to time be authorized in or pursuant to one or more resolutions of the Board of Directors or by supplemental indenture.
All things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company in accordance with its terms have been done, and the execution and delivery thereof have been in all respects duly authorized by the parties hereto.
NOW, THEREFORE, THIS INDENTURE WITNESSETH:
For and in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the Holders thereof, it is mutually agreed, for the equal and proportionate benefit of all Holders of the Securities of a Series thereof, as follows:
ARTICLE 1.
DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
1.1.    DEFINITIONS.
“Affiliate” of any specified Person means any other Person which, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls, or is controlled by or is under common control with, such specified Person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlling,” “controlled by” and “under common control with”), as used with respect to any Person, means the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such Person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by agreement or otherwise.
“Agent” means any Registrar, Paying Agent, co-registrar or agent for service of notices and demands.
“Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors of the Company or any committee duly authorized to act therefor.
“Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified pursuant to an Officers’ Certificate to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors of the Company and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification which has been delivered to the Trustee.
“Capital Stock” means, with respect to any Person, any and all shares or other equivalents (however designated) of capital stock, shares, partnership interests or any other participation,
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right or other interest in the nature of an equity interest in such Person or any option, warrant or other security convertible into any of the foregoing.
“Company” means the party named as such in the first paragraph of this Indenture until a successor replaces such party pursuant to ARTICLE 5 of this Indenture, and thereafter means the successor and any other primary obligor on the Securities.
“Company Order” means a written order signed in the name of the Company by two Officers, one of whom must be its Chief Executive Officer, its Chief Business Officer or its Chief Financial Officer.
“Company Request” means any written request signed in the name of the Company by its Chief Executive Officer, its President, its Global Controller, its Vice President, Legal (U.S.), its Chief Business Officer, its Chief Financial Officer or its Treasurer] and attested to by any of its Chief Executive Officer, its President, its Global Controller, its Vice President, Legal (U.S.), its Chief Business Officer, its Chief Financial Officer or its treasurer; provided, however, that the signatory and attestor shall be different persons.
“Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at the address specified in Section 10.2 or such other address as to which the Trustee may give notice to the Company.
“Default” means any event that is, or that with the passing of time or giving of notice or both would be, an Event of Default.
“Depository” means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the Person designated as Depository for such Series by the Company, which Depository shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, until a successor Depository shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Depository” shall mean each Person who is then a Depository hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, such Persons.
“Dollars” means the currency of the United States of America.
“Euro” means the single currency of participating member states of the economic and monetary union as contemplated in the Treaty on European Union.
“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
“Foreign Currency” means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of the United States of America.
“Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to Securities that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, (i) direct obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by, or acting as an agency or instrumentality of, such government, the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed
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as a full faith and credit obligation by such government, which, in either case under clauses (i) and (ii), are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.
“GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles consistently applied as in effect in the United States of America from time to time.
“Global Security” or “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.2, evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities issued to the Depository for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depository or nominee, and bearing the legend set forth in Section 2.15(c) (or such other legend(s) as may be applied to such Securities in accordance with Section 2.2(24)).
“Holder” or “Securityholder” means the Person in whose name a Security is registered on the Registrar’s books.
“Indebtedness” means (without duplication), with respect to any Person, any indebtedness at any time outstanding, secured or unsecured, contingent or otherwise, which is for borrowed money (whether or not the recourse of the lender is to the whole of the assets of such Person or only to a portion thereof), or evidenced by bonds, notes, debentures or similar instruments, or representing the balance deferred and unpaid of the purchase price of any property (excluding any balances that constitute accounts payable or trade payables, and other accrued liabilities arising in the ordinary course of business), if and to the extent any of the foregoing indebtedness would appear as a liability upon a balance sheet of such Person prepared in accordance with GAAP.
“Indenture” means this Indenture as amended, restated or supplemented from time to time.
“Interest Payment Date,” when used with respect to any Security, means the Stated Maturity of an installment of interest on such Security.
“Lien” means, with respect to any property or assets of any Person, any mortgage or deed of trust, pledge, hypothecation, assignment, deposit arrangement, security interest, lien, charge, easement, encumbrance, preference, priority or other security agreement or preferential arrangement of any kind or nature whatsoever on or with respect to such property or assets (including, without limitation, any capitalized lease obligation, conditional sales or other title retention agreement having substantially the same economic effect as any of the foregoing).
“Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security, or an installment of principal, becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption, notice of option to elect payment or otherwise.
“Officer” means the [Chief Executive Officer, the President, any Vice President, the Chief Operating Officer, the Chief Financial Officer, the Treasurer or the Secretary] of the Company, or any other officer designated by the Board of Directors, as the case may be.
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“Officers’ Certificate” means, with respect to any Person, a certificate signed by the [Chairman, Chief Executive Officer, President or any Senior or Executive Vice President and the Chief Operating Officer, Chief Financial Officer or any Treasurer of such Person], that shall comply with applicable provisions of this Indenture.
“Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion from legal counsel, which counsel is reasonably acceptable to the Trustee. The counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the Company.
“Person” means any individual, corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, association, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government (including any agency or political subdivision thereof).
“Redemption Date,” when used with respect to any Security to be redeemed, means the date fixed for such redemption pursuant to this Indenture.
“Responsible Officer,” when used with respect to the Trustee, means any officer within the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee including any vice president, assistant vice president, assistant secretary, assistant treasurer or any other officer of the Trustee who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture, or any other officer of the Trustee to whom such matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.
“SEC” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission as constituted from time to time, or any successor performing substantially the same functions.
“Securities” means the securities that are issued under this Indenture, as amended or supplemented from time to time pursuant to this Indenture.
“Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
“Series” or “Series of Securities” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.1 and 2.2.
“Significant Subsidiary” means (i) any direct or indirect Subsidiary of the Company that would be a “significant subsidiary” as defined in ARTICLE 1, Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X, promulgated pursuant to the Securities Act, as such regulation is in effect on the date hereof, or (ii) any group of direct or indirect Subsidiaries of the Company that, taken together as a group, would be a “significant subsidiary” as defined in ARTICLE 1, Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X, promulgated pursuant to the Securities Act, as such regulation is in effect on the date hereof.
“Stated Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security, or such installment of principal or interest, is due and payable, and when used with respect to any other Indebtedness, means the date specified in the instrument
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governing such Indebtedness as the fixed date on which the principal of such Indebtedness, or any installment of interest thereon, is due and payable.
“Subsidiary” of any specified Person means any corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, association or other business entity, whether now existing or hereafter organized or acquired, (i) in the case of a corporation, of which more than 50% of the total voting power of the Capital Stock entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors thereof is held, directly or indirectly, by such Person or any of its Subsidiaries; or (ii) in the case of a partnership, joint venture, association or other business entity, with respect to which such Person or any of its Subsidiaries has the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of such entity by contract or otherwise, or if in accordance with GAAP such entity is consolidated with such Person for financial statement purposes.
“TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S. Code Section 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date of this Indenture (except as provided in Section 8.3).
“Trustee” means the party named as such in this Indenture until a successor replaces it pursuant to this Indenture, and thereafter means the successor, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.
“U.S. Government Obligations” means direct non-callable obligations of, or non-callable obligations guaranteed by, the United States of America for the payment of which obligation or guarantee the full faith and credit of the United States of America is pledged.
1.2.    INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE OF TRUST INDENTURE ACT.
Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the portion of such provision required to be incorporated herein in order for this Indenture to be qualified under the TIA is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:
“Commission” means the SEC.
“indenture securities” means the Securities.
“indenture securityholder” means a Holder or Securityholder.
“indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture.
“indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee.
“obligor on the indenture securities” means the Company.
All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined in the TIA by reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule have the meanings therein assigned to them.
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1.3.    RULES OF CONSTRUCTION.
Unless the context otherwise requires:
(1) a term has the meaning assigned to it herein, whether defined expressly or by reference;
(2) an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with GAAP;
(3) “or” is not exclusive;
(4) words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular;
(5) words used herein implying any gender shall apply to each gender; and
(6) the words “herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.
ARTICLE 2.
THE SECURITIES
2.1.    ISSUABLE IN SERIES.
The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is $[ ]. The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to the authority granted under a Board Resolution. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, Stated Maturity, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined. Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, PROVIDED, that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of the Indenture.
2.2.    ESTABLISHMENT OF TERMS OF SERIES OF SECURITIES.
At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Subsection 2.2(1) and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections 2.2(2) through 2.2(24)) by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate, in each case, pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution:
(1) the title of the Series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that particular Series from the Securities of any other Series);
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(2) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the Series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the Series pursuant to Section 2.7, 2.8, 2.11, 3.6 or 8.5);
(3) the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;
(4) the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;
(5) the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall accrue, the date or dates on which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any Interest Payment Date;
(6) the place or places where the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series shall be payable, or the method of such payment, if by wire transfer, mail or other means;
(7) if applicable, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the Securities of the Series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;
(8) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase the Securities of the Series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof, and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;
(9) the dates, if any, on which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series will be repurchased by the Company at the option of the Holders thereof, and other detailed terms and provisions of such repurchase obligations;
(10) if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;
(11) the forms of the Securities of the Series in bearer (if to be issued outside of the United States of America) or fully registered form (and, if in fully registered form, whether the Securities will be issuable as Global Securities);
(12) if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2;
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(13) the currency of denomination of the Securities of the Series, which may be Dollars or any Foreign Currency, including, but not limited to, the Euro, and, if such currency of denomination is a composite currency other than the Euro, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;
(14) the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series will be made;
(15) if payments of principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which such Securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;
(16) the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, or interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series will be determined, if such amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;
(17) the provisions, if any, relating to any collateral provided for the Securities of the Series;
(18) any addition to or change in the covenants set forth in ARTICLE 4 or ARTICLE 5 that applies to Securities of the Series;
(19) any addition to or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series, and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.2;
(20) the terms and conditions, if any, for conversion of the Securities into or exchange of the Securities for shares of common stock or preferred stock of the Company that apply to Securities of the Series;
(21) any depositories, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to Securities of such Series if other than those appointed herein;
(22) the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the Securities shall be subordinated in right of payment to other Indebtedness of the Company;
(23) if applicable, that the Securities of the Series, in whole or any specified part, shall be defeasible pursuant to Article 9; and
(24) any other terms of the Securities of the Series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, except as permitted by Section 8.1, but which may modify or delete any provision of this Indenture insofar as it applies to such Series).
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(25) All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time, and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate referred to above, however, the authorized principal amount of any Series may not be increased to provide for issuances of additional Securities of such Series, unless otherwise provided in such Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate.
2.3.    EXECUTION AND AUTHENTICATION.
The Securities shall be executed on behalf of the Company by two Officers of the Company or an Officer and an Assistant Secretary of the Company. Each such signature may be either manual, electronic or facsimile. The Company’s seal may be impressed, affixed, imprinted or reproduced on the Securities and may be in facsimile form.
If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.
A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture. The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order. Such Company Order may authorize authentication and delivery pursuant to oral or electronic instructions from the Company or its duly authorized agent or agents, which oral instructions shall be promptly confirmed in writing. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.
The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2, except as provided in Section 2.8.
Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.1) shall be fully protected in relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officers’ Certificate complying with Section 10.4, and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 10.4.
The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of any Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised in writing by outside counsel, determines that such action may not lawfully be taken; or (b) if the Trustee in good faith shall reasonably determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability, or cause it to have a conflict of interest with respect to Holders of any then outstanding Series of Securities.
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The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Any appointment shall be evidenced by an instrument signed by an authorized officer of the Trustee, a copy of which shall be furnished to the Company. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company.
2.4.    REGISTRAR AND PAYING AGENT.
The Company shall maintain in each Place of Payment for any Series of Securities (i) an office or agency where such Securities may be presented for registration of transfer or for exchange (“Registrar”), (ii) an office or agency where such Securities may be presented for payment (“Paying Agent”), and PROVIDED, FURTHER, that at the option of the Company payment of interest may be made by check mailed to the address of the Person entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the register for the Securities maintained by the Registrar), and (iii) an office or agency where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities and this Indenture may be served (“Service Agent”). The Registrar shall keep a register of the Securities and of their transfer and exchange. The Company may have one or more co-registrars and one or more additional paying agents. The Company shall give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the location, and any change in the location, of such office or agency. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office, or to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands may be made or served at the address of the Trustee as set forth in Section 10.2; except for any service of process upon the Company. If the Company acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate the money held by it for the payment of principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities and hold it as a separate trust fund. The Company may change any Paying Agent, Registrar, co-registrar or any other Agent without notice to any Securityholder.
The Company may also from time to time designate one or more other offices or agencies where the Securities may be presented or surrendered for any or all such purposes, and may from time to time rescind such designations; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligation to maintain an office or agency in each Place of Payment for Securities of any Series for such purposes. The Company hereby initially designates the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee as such office of the Company. The Company shall give prompt written notice to the Trustee of such designation or rescission, and of any change in the location of any such other office or agency.
The Company shall enter into an appropriate agency agreement with any Registrar or Paying Agent not a party to this Indenture. The agreement shall implement the provisions of this Indenture that relate to such Agent. The Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the name and address of any such Agent. If the Company fails to maintain a Registrar or Paying Agent, or agent for service of notices and demands, or fails to give the foregoing notice, the Trustee shall act as such. The Company hereby appoints the Trustee as the initial Registrar, Paying Agent and
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Service Agent for each Series unless another Registrar, Paying Agent or Service Agent, as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued.
2.5.    PAYING AGENT TO HOLD ASSETS IN TRUST.
The Trustee as Paying Agent shall, and the Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that each Paying Agent shall, hold in trust for the benefit of the Holders of any Series of Securities or the Trustee all assets held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, such Series of Securities (whether such assets have been distributed to it by the Company or any other obligor on such Series of Securities), and the Company and the Paying Agent shall notify the Trustee in writing of any Default by the Company (or any other obligor on such Series of Securities) in making any such payment. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to distribute all assets held by it to the Trustee and account for any assets disbursed, and the Trustee may, at any time during the continuance of any payment default with respect to any Series of Securities, upon written request to a Paying Agent, require such Paying Agent to distribute all assets held by it to the Trustee and to account for any assets distributed. Upon distribution to the Trustee of all assets that shall have been delivered by the Company to the Paying Agent, the Paying Agent shall have no further liability for such assets.
2.6.    SECURITYHOLDER LISTS.
The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities. If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee as of each regular record date for the payment of interest on the Securities of a Series and before each related Interest Payment Date, and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, a list in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities.
2.7.    TRANSFER AND EXCHANGE.
When Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar with a request to register the transfer thereof, the Registrar shall register the transfer as requested if the requirements of applicable law are met, and when such Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar with a request to exchange them for an equal principal amount of other authorized denominations of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall make the exchange as requested. To permit transfers and exchanges, upon surrender of any Security for registration of transfer at the office or agency maintained pursuant to Section 2.4, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s request.
If Securities are issued as Global Securities, the provisions of Section 2.15 shall apply.
All Securities issued upon any registration of transfer or exchange of Securities shall be the valid obligations of the Company, evidencing the same debt, and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such registration of transfer or exchange.
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Every Security presented or surrendered for registration of transfer or for exchange shall (if so required by the Company or the Registrar or a co-registrar) be duly endorsed, or be accompanied by a written instrument of transfer in form satisfactory to the Company and the Registrar or a co-registrar, duly executed by the Holder thereof or his attorney duly authorized in writing.
Any exchange or transfer shall be without charge, except that the Company may require payment by the Holder of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation to a transfer or exchange, but this provision shall not apply to any exchange pursuant to Section 2.11, 3.6 or 8.5. The Trustee shall not be required to register transfers of Securities of any Series, or to exchange Securities of any Series, for a period of 15 days before the record date for selection for redemption of such Securities. The Trustee shall not be required to exchange or register transfers of Securities of any Series called or being called for redemption in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of such Security being redeemed in part.
2.8.    REPLACEMENT SECURITIES.
If a mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, or if the Holder of a Security presents evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee that the Security has been lost, destroyed or wrongfully taken, the Company shall issue and the Trustee shall authenticate a replacement Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding. An indemnity bond may be required by the Company or the Trustee that is sufficient in the reasonable judgment of the Company or the Trustee, as the case may be, to protect the Company, the Trustee or any Agent from any loss which any of them may suffer if a Security is replaced. The Company may charge such Holder for the Company’s out-of-pocket expenses in replacing a Security, including the fees and expenses of the Trustee. Every replacement Security shall constitute an original additional obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that Series duly issued hereunder.
2.9.    OUTSTANDING SECURITIES.
Securities outstanding at any time are all Securities authenticated by the Trustee, except for those canceled by it, those delivered to it for cancellation and those described in this Section 2.9 as not outstanding.
If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.8 (other than a mutilated Security surrendered for replacement), it ceases to be outstanding until the Company and the Trustee receive proof satisfactory to each of them that the replaced Security is held by a bona fide purchaser. A mutilated Security ceases to be outstanding upon surrender of such Security and replacement thereof pursuant to Section 2.8.
If a Paying Agent holds on a Redemption Date or the Stated Maturity money sufficient to pay the principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest on, Securities payable on that date,
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and is not prohibited from paying such money to the Holders thereof pursuant to the terms of this Indenture (PROVIDED, that if such Securities are to be redeemed, notice of such redemption has been duly given pursuant to this Indenture or provision therefor satisfactory to the Trustee has been made), then on and after that date such Securities cease to be outstanding and interest on them ceases to accrue.
A Security does not cease to be outstanding solely because the Company or an Affiliate holds the Security.
2.10.    WHEN TREASURY SECURITIES DISREGARDED; DETERMINATION OF HOLDERS’ ACTION.
In determining whether the Holders of the required aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any Series have concurred in any direction, waiver or consent, the Securities of any Series owned by the Company or any other obligor on such Securities, or by any Affiliate of any of them, shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, waiver or consent, only Securities of such Series which a Responsible Officer of the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. Securities of such Series so owned which have been pledged in good faith shall not be disregarded if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to the Securities of such Series and that the pledgee is not the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of such Series, or an Affiliate of any of them.
2.11.    TEMPORARY SECURITIES.
Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and execute, and, upon receipt of a Company Order, the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities. Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form, and shall carry all rights, of definitive Securities, but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities. Without unreasonable delay, the Company shall prepare and execute, and, upon receipt of a Company Order, the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, definitive Securities in exchange for temporary Securities without charge to the Holder.
2.12.    CANCELLATION.
All Securities surrendered for payment, redemption or registration of transfer or exchange, or for credit against any sinking fund payment, shall, if surrendered to any Person other than the Trustee, be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation. The Company may at any time deliver to the Trustee for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated and delivered hereunder which the Company may have acquired in any manner whatsoever, and may deliver to the Trustee (or to any other Person for delivery to the Trustee) for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated hereunder which the Company has not issued and sold. The Registrar and the Paying Agent shall forward to the Trustee any Securities surrendered to them for transfer, exchange or payment. The Trustee, at the written direction of the Company, or, at the written direction of the Company, the Registrar or the Paying Agent (if the Trustee is not serving in those capacities), and no one else, shall cancel and dispose of (subject to the record retention
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requirements of the Exchange Act and the Trustee) in accordance with its standard procedures, all Securities surrendered for transfer, exchange, payment or cancellation. If the Company shall acquire any of the Securities, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the Indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are surrendered to the Trustee for cancellation pursuant to this Section 2.12. No Securities shall be authenticated in lieu of or in exchange for any Securities cancelled as provided in this Section 2.12, except as expressly permitted by this Indenture.
2.13.    PAYMENT OF INTEREST; DEFAULTED INTEREST; COMPUTATION OF INTEREST.
Except as otherwise provided as contemplated by Section 2.2 with respect to any Series of Securities, interest on any Security which is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date shall be paid to the Person in whose name that Security is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest, as provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate establishing the terms of such Series.
If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on the Securities, it shall pay the defaulted amounts, plus any interest payable on defaulted amounts pursuant to Section 4.1, to the Persons who are Securityholders on a subsequent special record date, which date shall be the 15th day next preceding the date fixed by the Company for the payment of defaulted interest, or the next succeeding Business Day if such date is not a Business Day. At least 15 days before the special record date, the Company shall mail or cause to be delivered to each Securityholder, with a copy to the Trustee, a notice that states the special record date, the payment date and the amount of defaulted interest, and interest payable on such defaulted interest, if any, to be paid.
Except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.2 for Securities of any Series, interest on the Securities of each Series shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months.
2.14.    CUSIP NUMBER.
The Company in issuing the Securities may use one or more “CUSIP” numbers, and, if the Company does so, the Trustee shall use the CUSIP number(s) in notices of redemption or exchange as a convenience to Holders, PROVIDED, that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness or accuracy of the CUSIP number(s) printed in the notice or on the Securities, and that reliance may be placed only on the other identification numbers printed on the Securities, and that any such redemption or exchange shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of any such numbers. The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee in writing of any change in the “CUSIP” numbers assigned to the Securities.
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2.15.    PROVISIONS FOR GLOBAL SECURITIES.
(a)    A Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate shall establish whether the Securities of a Series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, and the Depository for such Global Securities or Securities.
(b)    Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.7 and in addition thereto, if, and only if the Depository (i) at any time is unwilling or unable to continue as Depository for such Global Security or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act and (ii) a successor Depository is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the date the Company is so informed in writing or becomes aware of the same, the Company promptly will execute and deliver to the Trustee definitive Securities, and the Trustee, upon receipt of a Company Request for the authentication and delivery of such definitive Securities (which the Company will promptly execute and deliver to the Trustee) and an Officers’ Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable, will authenticate and deliver definitive Securities, without charge, registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depository shall direct in writing (pursuant to instructions from its direct and indirect participants or otherwise) in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security with like tenor and terms. Upon the exchange of a Global Security for definitive Securities, such Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for definitive Securities, as provided in this Section 2.15(b), a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depository with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depository, by a nominee of such Depository to such Depository or another nominee of such Depository or by the Depository or any such nominee to a successor Depository or a nominee of such a successor Depository.
(c)    Any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:
“This Security is a Global Security within the meaning of the Indenture hereinafter referred to, and is registered in the name of the Depository or a nominee of the Depository. This Security is exchangeable for Securities registered in the name of a Person other than the Depository or its nominee only in the limited circumstances described in the Indenture, and may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depository to a nominee of the Depository, by a nominee of the Depository to the Depository or another nominee of the Depository or by the Depository or any such nominee to a successor Depository or a nominee of such a successor Depository.”
(d)    The Depository, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take under the Indenture.
(e)    Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Indenture, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.2, payment of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any,
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on, any Global Security shall be made to the Depository or its nominee in its capacity as the Holder thereof.
(f)    Except as provided in Section 2.15(e) above, the Company, the Trustee and any Agent shall treat a Person as the Holder of such principal amount of outstanding Securities of any Series represented by a Global Security as shall be specified in a written statement of the Depository (which may be in the form of a participants’ list for such Series) with respect to such Global Security, for purposes of obtaining any consents, declarations, waivers or directions required to be given by the Holders pursuant to this Indenture, PROVIDED, that until the Trustee is so provided with a written statement, it may treat the Depository or any other Person in whose name a Global Security is registered as the owner of such Global Security for the purpose of receiving payment of the principal of, and any premium and (subject to Section 2.13) any interest on, such Global Security and for all other purposes whatsoever, and none of the Company, the Trustee or any agent of the Company or the Trustee shall be affected by notice to the contrary.
2.16.    PERSONS DEEMED OWNERS.
Prior to due presentment of a Security for registration of transfer, the Company, the Trustee, the Registrar and any agent of the Company, the Registrar or the Trustee may treat the Person in whose name such Security is registered as the owner of such Security for the purpose of receiving payment of the principal of, and any premium and (subject to Section 2.13) any interest on, such Security and for all other purposes whatsoever, and none of the Company, the Trustee, the Registrar or any agent of the Company, the Trustee or the Registrar shall be affected by notice to the contrary.
ARTICLE 3.
REDEMPTION
3.1.    NOTICES TO TRUSTEE.
The Company may, with respect to any Series of Securities, reserve the right to redeem and pay the Series of Securities, or may covenant to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or any part thereof, prior to the Stated Maturity thereof at such time and on such terms as provided for in such Securities or the related Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate. If a Series of Securities is redeemable and the Company elects to redeem all or part of such Series of Securities, it shall notify the Trustee in writing of the Redemption Date and the principal amount of Securities to be redeemed at least 45 days (unless a shorter notice shall be satisfactory to the Trustee) before the Redemption Date. Any such notice may be canceled at any time prior to notice of such redemption being mailed to any Holder, and shall thereby be void and of no effect.
3.2.    SELECTION BY TRUSTEE OF SECURITIES TO BE REDEEMED.
Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series of Securities by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate, if fewer than all of the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the Trustee shall select the Securities of a Series to be redeemed pro rata, by
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lot or by any other method that the Trustee considers fair and appropriate (unless the Company specifically directs the Trustee otherwise) subject, in the case of Global Securities, to the applicable rules and procedures of the Depository and, if such Securities are listed on any securities exchange, by a method that complies with the requirements of such exchange.
The Trustee shall make the selection from Securities of a Series outstanding and not previously called for redemption, and shall promptly notify the Company in writing of the Securities selected for redemption and, in the case of any Security selected for partial redemption, the principal amount thereof to be redeemed at least 35 but not more than 60 days before the Redemption Date. Securities of a Series in denominations of $1,000 may be redeemed only in whole. The Trustee may select for redemption portions of the principal of Securities of a Series that have denominations larger than $1,000. Securities of a Series and portions of them it selects shall be in amounts of $1,000 or, with respect to Securities of any Series issuable in other denominations pursuant to Section 2.2(10), the minimum principal denomination for each Series and integral multiples thereof. Provisions of this Indenture that apply to Securities called for redemption also apply to portions of Securities called for redemption. Notwithstanding the above, the applicable procedures of the Depository regarding the selection of Securities issued as Global Securities shall govern.
Neither the Trustee nor any Agent will have any responsibility for any action taken or not taken by the Depository. The Trustee and the Paying Agent will have no responsibility or obligation to any beneficial owner of a Global Security or a depository participant or other Person with respect to the accuracy of the records of the Depository or its nominee or of any participant or member thereof with respect to any ownership interest in the Securities or with respect to the delivery to any participant, member, beneficial owner or other Person (other than the Depository) of any notice (including any Redemption Notice) or the payment of any amount, under or with respect to such Securities. The rights of beneficial owners in any Global Securities will be exercised only through the Depository subject to the Depository Procedures. The Trustee may rely and shall be fully protected in relying upon information furnished by the Depository with respect to its members, participants and any beneficial owners
3.3.    NOTICE OF REDEMPTION.
Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate, at least 30 days, and no more than 60 days, before a Redemption Date, the Company shall mail, or cause to be mailed, a notice of redemption by first-class mail to each Holder of Securities to be redeemed at his or her last address as the same appears on the registry books maintained by the Registrar, or, with respect to Securities issued as Global Securities, such notice shall be delivered in accordance with the applicable procedures of the Depository. The notice shall identify the Securities to be redeemed and shall state:
(1) the Redemption Date;
(2) the redemption price, and that such redemption price shall become due and payable on the Redemption Date;
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(3) if any Security of a Series is being redeemed in part, the portion of the principal amount of such Security of a Series to be redeemed and that, after the Redemption Date and upon surrender of such Security of a Series, a new Security or Securities in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion will be issued;
(4) the name and address of the Paying Agent;
(5) that Securities of a Series called for redemption must be surrendered to the Paying Agent to collect the redemption price, and the place or places where each such Security is to be surrendered for such payment;
(6) that, unless the Company defaults in making the redemption payment, interest on the Securities of a Series called for redemption ceases to accrue on the Redemption Date, and the only remaining right of the Holders of such Securities is to receive payment of the redemption price upon surrender to the Paying Agent of the Securities redeemed;
(7) if fewer than all of the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the identification of the particular Securities of a Series (or portion thereof) to be redeemed, as well as the aggregate principal amount of Securities of a Series to be redeemed and the aggregate principal amount of Securities of a Series to be outstanding after such partial redemption.
(8) the CUSIP number, if any, printed on the Securities being redeemed; and
(9) that no representation is made as to the correctness or accuracy of the CUSIP number, if any, listed in such notice or printed on the Securities.
At the Company’s request, the Trustee shall give the notice of redemption in the Company’s name and at the Company’s sole expense; provided, however, that the Company has delivered to the Trustee prior to the notice date, an Officers’ Certificate requesting that the Trustee give such notice and setting forth the information to be stated in such notice and the form of such notice.
3.4.    EFFECT OF NOTICE OF REDEMPTION.
Once the notice of redemption described in Section 3.3 is delivered, Securities of a Series called for redemption become due and payable on the Redemption Date and at the redemption price, plus interest, if any, accrued to the Redemption Date. Upon surrender to the Trustee or Paying Agent, such Securities of a Series shall be paid at the redemption price, plus accrued interest, if any, to the Redemption Date; PROVIDED, that if the Redemption Date is after a regular interest payment record date and on or prior to the next Interest Payment Date, the accrued interest shall be payable to the Holder of the redeemed Securities registered on the relevant record date, as specified by the Company in the notice to the Trustee pursuant to Section 3.1.
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3.5.    DEPOSIT OF REDEMPTION PRICE.
On or prior to the Redemption Date (but no later than 11:00 A.M. Eastern Time on such date), the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the redemption price of and accrued interest, if any, on all Securities to be redeemed on that date other than Securities or portions thereof called for redemption on that date which have been delivered by the Company to the Trustee for cancellation.
On and after any Redemption Date, if money sufficient to pay the redemption price of, and accrued interest on, Securities called for redemption shall have been made available in accordance with the preceding paragraph and the Company and the Paying Agent are not prohibited from paying such moneys to Holders, the Securities called for redemption will cease to accrue interest and the only right of the Holders of such Securities will be to receive payment of the redemption price of and, subject to the proviso in Section 3.4, accrued and unpaid interest on such Securities to the Redemption Date. If any Security called for redemption shall not be so paid, interest will be paid, from the Redemption Date until such redemption payment is made, on the unpaid principal of the Security and any interest or premium, if any, not paid on such unpaid principal, in each case, at the rate and in the manner provided in the Securities.
3.6.    SECURITIES REDEEMED IN PART.
Upon surrender of a Security of a Series that is redeemed in part, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate, for a Holder a new Security of the same Series equal in principal amount to the unredeemed portion of the Security surrendered.
ARTICLE 4.
COVENANTS
4.1.    PAYMENT OF SECURITIES.
The Company shall pay the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, each Series of Securities on the dates and in the manner provided in such Securities and this Indenture.
An installment of principal or interest shall be considered paid on the date it is due if the Trustee or Paying Agent holds on that date money designated for and sufficient to pay such installment and is not prohibited from paying such money to the Holders pursuant to the terms of this Indenture or otherwise.
The Company shall pay interest on overdue principal, and overdue interest, to the extent lawful, at the rate specified in the Series of Securities.
4.2.    SEC REPORTS.
The Company will deliver to the Trustee within 15 days after the filing of the same with the SEC, copies of the quarterly and annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports, if any, which the Company is required to file with the SEC pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that each such report or document will be
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deemed to be so delivered to the Trustee if the Company files such report or document with the SEC through the SEC’s EDGAR database no later than the time such report or document is required to be filed with the SEC pursuant to the Exchange Act. Notwithstanding that the Company may not be subject to the reporting requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, the Company will file with the SEC, to the extent permitted, and provide the Trustee with, such quarterly and annual reports and such information, documents and other reports specified in Sections 13 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Company will also comply with the other provisions of TIA Section 314(a).
Delivery of such reports, information and documents to the Trustee is for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute actual or constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on Officers’ Certificates). The Trustee will not be responsible and shall have no liability whatsoever to determine whether any financial information has been filed or posted on the EDGAR system (or any successor electronic delivery procedure) or have any duty to monitor or determine whether the Company has delivered the reports described under this Section 4.2 or otherwise complied with its obligation under this Section 4.2.
4.3.    WAIVER OF STAY, EXTENSION OR USURY LAWS.
The Company covenants (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) that it will not at any time insist upon, or plead (as a defense or otherwise) or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any stay, extension, usury or other law which would prohibit or forgive the Company from paying all or any portion of the principal of, and/or interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities as contemplated herein, wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, or which may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture; and the Company hereby expressly waives (to the extent that they may lawfully do so) all benefit or advantage of any such law, and covenants that it will not hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law had been enacted.
4.4.    COMPLIANCE CERTIFICATE.
(a)    The Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Company during which any Securities were outstanding, an Officers’ Certificate which complies with TIA Section 314(a)(4) stating that a review of the activities of the Company and its Subsidiaries during such fiscal year has been made under the supervision of the signing Officers with a view to determining whether the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled its obligations under this Indenture, and further stating, as to each such Officer signing such certificate, that to the best of his or her knowledge the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled each and every covenant contained in this Indenture and that there is no default in the performance or observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions hereof (or, if a Default or Event of Default shall have occurred, describing all such Defaults or Events of Default of which he or she may have knowledge and what action the
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Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto) and that to the best of his or her knowledge no event has occurred and remains in existence by reason of which payments on account of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities is prohibited, or if such event has occurred, a description of the event and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto.
(b)    (i) If any Default or Event of Default has occurred and is continuing or (ii) if any Holder seeks to exercise any remedy hereunder with respect to a claimed Default under this Indenture or the Securities, within ten Business Days after the Company becoming aware of such occurrence the Company shall deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate specifying such event, notice or other action and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto.
4.5.    CORPORATE EXISTENCE.
Subject to ARTICLE 5, the Company shall do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its corporate existence, in accordance with the organizational documents (as the same may be amended from time to time) of the Company and the rights (charter and statutory), licenses and franchises of the Company; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that the Company shall not be required to preserve any such right, license or franchise, or its corporate existence, if the Board of Directors shall determine that the preservation thereof is no longer desirable in the conduct of the business of the Company and that the loss thereof is not adverse in any material respect to the Holders.
ARTICLE 5.
SUCCESSOR CORPORATION
5.1.    LIMITATION ON CONSOLIDATION, MERGER AND SALE OF ASSETS.
(a)    The Company will not, in any transaction or series of transactions, merge or consolidate with or into, or sell, assign, convey, transfer, lease or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of its properties and assets (as an entirety or substantially as an entirety in one transaction or a series of related transactions), to any Person or Persons, unless at the time of and after giving effect thereto (i) either (A) if the transaction or series of transactions is a merger or consolidation, the Company shall be the surviving Person of such merger or consolidation, or (B) the Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Company is merged or to which the properties and assets of the Company are transferred (any such surviving Person or transferee Person being the “Surviving Entity”) shall be a corporation or entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes organized and existing under the laws of the United States of America, any state thereof or the District of Columbia, or a corporation or comparable legal entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes organized under the laws of a foreign jurisdiction and shall expressly assume by a supplemental indenture executed and delivered to the Trustee, in form reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee, all of the obligations of the Company (including, without limitation, the obligation to pay the principal of, and premium and interest, if any, on, the Securities and the performance of the other covenants) under the Securities of each Series and this Indenture, and in each case, this Indenture shall remain in full
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force and effect; and (ii) immediately before and immediately after giving effect to such transaction or series of transactions on a pro forma basis (including, without limitation, any Indebtedness incurred or anticipated to be incurred in connection with or in respect of such transaction or series of transactions), no Default or Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing.
(b)    In connection with any consolidation, merger or transfer of assets contemplated by this Section 5.1, the Company shall deliver, or cause to be delivered, to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that such consolidation, merger or transfer, and the supplemental indenture in respect thereto, comply with this Section 5.1, and that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to such transaction or transactions have been complied with.
5.2.    SUCCESSOR PERSON SUBSTITUTED.
Upon any consolidation, merger or transfer of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company in accordance with Section 5.1 above, the successor corporation formed by such consolidation, or into which the Company is merged or to which such transfer is made, shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor corporation had been named as the Company herein, and thereafter (except with respect to any such transfer which is a lease) the predecessor corporation shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.
ARTICLE 6.
DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES
6.1.    EVENTS OF DEFAULT.
“Events of Default,” wherever used herein with respect to Securities of any Series, means any one of the following events, unless in the establishing Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate, it is provided that such Series shall not have the benefit of said Event of Default:
(1) there is a default in the payment of any principal of, or premium, if any, on, the Securities when the same becomes due and payable at Maturity, upon acceleration, redemption or otherwise;
(2) there is a default in the payment of any interest on any Security of a Series when the same becomes due and payable, and the Default continues for a period of 30 days;
(3) the Company defaults in the observance or performance of any other covenant in the Securities of a Series or in this Indenture for 60 days after written notice from the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such Series then outstanding, which notice must specify the Default, demand that it be remedied and state that the notice is a “Notice of Default”;
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(4) the Company or any Significant Subsidiary pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law:
(A)    commences a voluntary case,
(B)    consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case,
(C)    consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property,
(D)    makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors, or
(E)    generally is not paying its debts as they become due;
(5) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order or decree under any Bankruptcy Law that:
(A)    is for relief against the Company or any Significant Subsidiary in an involuntary case;
(B)    appoints a Custodian of the Company or any Significant Subsidiary, or for all or substantially all of the property of the Company or any Significant Subsidiary; or
(C)    orders the liquidation of the Company or any Significant Subsidiary, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 consecutive days; or
(6) any other Event of Default provided with respect to Securities of that Series, which is specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate, in accordance with Section 2.2(19).
The term “Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal, state or foreign law for the relief of debtors. The term “Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.
The Trustee may withhold notice of any Default (except in the payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities) to the Holders of the Securities of any Series in accordance with Section 7.5. When a Default is cured, it ceases to exist.
The Trustee shall not be charged with knowledge of any Event of Default unless written notice thereof shall have been actually received by a Responsible Officer at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee from the Company, a Paying Agent, any Holder or any agent of any Holder.
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6.2.    ACCELERATION.
If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding (other than an Event of Default arising under Section 6.1(4) or (5) with respect to the Company) occurs and is continuing, the Trustee by written notice to the Company, or the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that Series then outstanding by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may declare that the entire principal amount (and premium, if any, on) of all the Securities of that Series then outstanding plus accrued and unpaid interest to the date of acceleration are immediately due and payable, in which case such amounts shall become immediately due and payable; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that after such acceleration but before a judgment or decree based on such acceleration is obtained by the Trustee, the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series may rescind and annul such acceleration and its consequences if (i) all existing Events of Default, other than the nonpayment of accelerated principal, interest or premium, if any, that has become due solely because of the acceleration, have been cured or waived, (ii) to the extent the payment of such interest is lawful, interest on overdue installments of interest and overdue principal, which has become due otherwise than by such declaration of acceleration, has been paid and (iii) the rescission would not conflict with any judgment or decree. No such rescission shall affect any subsequent Default or impair any right consequent thereto. In case an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(4) or (5) with respect to the Company occurs, such principal, premium, if any, and interest amount with respect to all of the Securities of that Series shall be due and payable immediately without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or the Holders of the Securities of that Series.
6.3.    REMEDIES.
If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may, but shall not be obligated to, pursue any available remedy by proceeding at law or in equity to collect the payment of the principal of, or interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of that Series, or to enforce the performance of any provision of the Securities of that Series or this Indenture.
The Trustee may maintain a proceeding even if it does not possess any of the Securities of that Series or does not produce any of them in the proceeding. A delay or omission by the Trustee or any Securityholder in exercising any right or remedy accruing upon an Event of Default shall not impair the right or remedy or constitute a waiver of or acquiescence in the Event of Default. No remedy is exclusive of any other remedy. All available remedies are cumulative to the extent permitted by law.
6.4.    WAIVER OF PAST DEFAULTS AND EVENTS OF DEFAULT.
Subject to Sections 6.2, 6.7 and 8.2, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series then outstanding by written notice to the Trustee have the right to waive any existing Default or Event of Default with respect to such Series or compliance with any provision of this Indenture (with respect to such Series) or the Securities of such Series. Upon any such waiver, such Default with respect to such Series shall cease to exist, and any Event of
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Default with respect to such Series arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other Default or Event of Default or impair any right consequent thereto. This Section 6.4 shall be in lieu of TIA Section 316(a)(1)(B), and TIA Section 316(a)(1)(B) is hereby expressly excluded from this Indenture and Section as permitted by the TIA.
6.5.    CONTROL BY MAJORITY.
Subject to Sections 6.2, 6.7 and 8.2, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series then outstanding may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee by this Indenture with respect to such Series. The Trustee, however, may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or this Indenture, or that the Trustee determines, in its sole discretion, may be unduly prejudicial to the rights of another Securityholder or the Trustee, or that may involve the Trustee in personal liability; PROVIDED, that the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction. This Section 6.5 shall be in lieu of TIA Section 316(a)(1)(A), and TIA Section 316(a)(1)(A) is hereby expressly excluded from this Indenture and Section as permitted by the TIA.
6.6.    LIMITATION ON SUITS.
Subject to Section 6.7, a Securityholder may not institute any proceeding or pursue any remedy with respect to this Indenture or the Securities of a Series unless:
(1) the Holder gives to the Trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of that Series;
(2) the Holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such Series then outstanding make a written request to the Trustee to pursue the remedy;
(3) such Holder or Holders offer to the Trustee indemnity satisfactory to the Trustee against any loss, liability or expense to be incurred in compliance with such request;
(4) the Trustee does not comply with the request within 60 days after receipt of the request and the offer of indemnity; and
(5) no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the Trustee during such 60-day period by the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such Series then outstanding.
A Securityholder may not use this Indenture to prejudice the rights of another Securityholder, or to obtain a preference or priority over another Securityholder.
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6.7.    RIGHTS OF HOLDERS TO RECEIVE PAYMENT.
Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture, the right of any Holder of a Security of a Series to receive payment of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Security of such Series on or after the respective due dates expressed in the Security of such Series, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates, is absolute and unconditional, and shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of the Holder.
6.8.    COLLECTION SUIT BY TRUSTEE.
If an Event of Default in payment of principal, interest or premium, if any, specified in Section 6.1(1) or (2) with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may recover judgment in its own name and as trustee of an express trust against the Company (or any other obligor on the Securities of that Series) for the whole amount of unpaid principal and premium, if any, and accrued interest remaining unpaid, together with interest on overdue principal and premium, if any, and, to the extent that payment of such interest is lawful, interest on overdue installments of interest, in each case at the rate then borne by the Securities of that Series, and such further amounts as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, as set forth in Section 7.7.
6.9.    TRUSTEE MAY FILE PROOFS OF CLAIM.
The Trustee may file such proofs of claim and other papers or documents, and take other actions (including sitting on a committee of creditors), as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel) and the Securityholders allowed in any judicial proceedings relative to the Company (or any other obligor on the Securities), any of their respective creditors or any of their respective property, and the Trustee shall be entitled and empowered to collect and receive any monies or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims, and to distribute the same after deduction of its charges and expenses to the extent that any such charges and expenses are not paid out of the estate in any such proceedings, and any custodian in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Securityholder to make such payments to the Trustee, and in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due to it for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.7, and to the extent that such payment of reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances in any such proceedings shall be denied for any reason, payment of the same shall be secured by a lien on, and shall be paid out of, any and all distributions, dividends, money, securities and other property which the Holders may be entitled to receive in such proceedings, whether in liquidation or under any plan of reorganization or arrangement or otherwise.
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Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to, or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder, any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of a Series or the rights of any Holder thereof, or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceedings.
6.10.    PRIORITIES.
If the Trustee collects any money pursuant to this ARTICLE 6, it shall pay out the money in the following order:
FIRST: to the Trustee for amounts due under Section 7.7;
SECOND: to Securityholders for amounts then due and unpaid for the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities in respect of which, or for the benefit of which, such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities; for principal and any premium and interest, respectively; and
THIRD: to the Company or such party as a court of competent jurisdiction shall direct.
The Trustee may fix a record date and payment date for any payment to Securityholders pursuant to this Section 6.10.
6.11.    UNDERTAKING FOR COSTS.
In any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, a court in its discretion may require the filing by any party litigant in the suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of the suit, and the court in its discretion may assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in the suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by the party litigant. This Section 6.11 does not apply to a suit by the Trustee, a suit by a Holder pursuant to Section 6.7 or a suit by Holders of more than 10% in principal amount of the Securities of a Series then outstanding.
ARTICLE 7.
TRUSTEE
7.1.    DUTIES OF TRUSTEE.
(a)    If an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee shall exercise such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture and use the same degree of care and skill in its exercise as a prudent Person would exercise or use under the same circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs.
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(b)    Except during the continuance of an Event of Default:
(1) The duties of the Trustee shall be determined solely by the express provisions of this Indenture and the Trustee need perform only those duties that are specifically set forth in this Indenture and no others, and no covenants or obligations shall be implied in this Indenture against the Trustee.
(2) In the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture, but, in the case of any such certificates or opinions which by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture.
(c)    The Trustee may not be relieved from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or its own willful misconduct, except that:
(1) This paragraph does not limit the effect of paragraph (b) of this Section 7.1.
(2) The Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer, unless it is proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts.
(3) The Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in accordance with a direction received by it pursuant to Sections 6.2 and 6.5.
(d)    No provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds, or otherwise incur any liability, including any financial liability, in the performance of any of its rights or powers if it shall have reasonable grounds for believing that repayment of such funds or adequate indemnity satisfactory to it against such risk or liability is not reasonably assured to it. The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or power vested in it by this Indenture at the request or direction of any of the Holder pursuant to this Indenture, unless such Holders shall have offered, and if requested provided, to the Trustee indemnity satisfactory to the Trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities that might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction.
(e)    Whether or not therein expressly so provided, paragraphs (a), (b), (c) and (d) of this Section 7.1 shall govern every provision of this Indenture that in any way relates to the Trustee.
(f)    The Trustee and Paying Agent shall not be liable for interest on any money received by either of them, except as the Trustee and Paying Agent may agree in writing with the Company. Money held in trust by the Trustee need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by the law.
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(g)    The Paying Agent, the Registrar and any authenticating agent shall be entitled to the protections, immunities and standard of care set forth in paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d) and (f) of this Section 7.1 and in Section 7.2 with respect to the Trustee.
(h)    The Trustee shall not be required to give any bond or surety in respect of the performance of its powers or duties hereunder.
7.2.    RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE.
(a)    Subject to Section 7.1:
(1) The Trustee may conclusively rely on, and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon, any document y believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper Person. The Trustee need not investigate any fact or matter stated in the document.
(2) Before the Trustee acts or refrains from acting, it may require, and may conclusively rely on, an Officers’ Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel, or both, which shall conform to the provisions of Section 10.5. The Trustee shall be protected and shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in reliance on such certificate or opinion.
(3) The Trustee may act through agents and attorneys, and shall not be responsible for the misconduct or negligence of any agent appointed by it with due care.
(4) The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith which it reasonably believes to be authorized or within its rights or powers.
(5) The Trustee may consult with counsel of its selection, and the advice or opinion of such counsel as to matters of law shall be full and complete authorization and protection from liability in respect of any action taken, omitted or suffered by it hereunder in good faith and in accordance with the advice or opinion of such counsel.
(6) The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Holders pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Holders shall have provided to the Trustee security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities which may be incurred therein or thereby.
(7) The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, other evidence of indebtedness or other paper or document.
(8) The Trustee shall not be deemed to have knowledge of any fact or matter (including, without limitation, a Default or Event of Default) unless such fact or matter is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee.
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(9) The permissive right of the Trustee to take actions permitted by this Indenture will not be construed as an obligation or duty to do so.
(10) The rights, privileges, protection, immunities and benefits given to the Trustee, including, without limitation, its right to be indemnified, are extended to, and shall be enforceable by, the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder, and to each agent, custodian and other person employed to act hereunder.
(11) Unless otherwise expressly provided herein or in the Securities of a Series or the related Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate, the Trustee shall not have any responsibility with respect to reports, notices, certificates or other documents filed with it hereunder, except to make them available for inspection, at reasonable times, by Securityholders, it being understood that delivery of such reports, information and documents to the Trustee is for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (except as set forth in Section 4.4).
(11) The Trustee may request that the Company deliver an Officers’ Certificate setting forth the names of individuals and/or titles of officers authorized at such time to take specified actions pursuant to this Indenture, which Officers’ Certificate may be signed by any Person authorized to sign an Officers’ Certificate, including any Person specified as so authorized in any such certificate previously delivered and not superseded.
(12) In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for special, punitive, indirect or consequential loss or damage of any kind whatsoever (including, but not limited to, loss of profit), irrespective of whether the Trustee has been advised of the likelihood of such loss or damage and regardless of the form of action.
7.3.    INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE.
The Trustee in its individual or any other capacity may become the owner or pledgee of Securities, and may make loans to, accept deposits from, perform services for or otherwise deal with the Company, or any Affiliate thereof, with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee. Any Agent may do the same with like rights. The Trustee, however, shall be subject to Sections 7.10 and 7.11.
7.4.    TRUSTEE’S DISCLAIMER.
The Trustee shall not be responsible for and makes no representation as to the validity or adequacy of this Indenture or the Securities (except that the Trustee represents that it is duly authorized to execute and deliver this Indenture and authenticate the Securities and perform its obligations hereunder), and the Trustee shall not be accountable for the Company’s use of the proceeds from the sale of Securities or any money paid to the Company or upon the Company’s direction pursuant to the terms of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any statement or recital herein or any statement in the Securities or any other document in connection
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with the sale of the Securities or pursuant to this Indenture other than its certificates of authentication.
7.5.    NOTICE OF DEFAULT.
If a Default or an Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the Securities of any Series, and if it is known to as Responsible Officer of the Trustee, the Trustee shall deliver to each Securityholder of the Securities of that Series notice of the Default or the Event of Default, as the case may be, within 90 days after it occurs or, if later, after a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default (except if such Default or Event of Default has been validly cured or waived before the giving of such notice). Except in the case of a Default or an Event of Default in payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, any Security of any Series, the Trustee may withhold the notice if and so long as it determines that withholding the notice is in the interests of the Securityholders of that Series.
7.6.    REPORTS BY TRUSTEE TO HOLDERS.
If and to the extent required by the TIA, within 60 days after May 15 of each year, commencing the May 15 following the date of this Indenture, the Trustee shall deliver to each Securityholder a brief report dated as of such May 15 that complies with TIA Section 313(a). The Trustee also shall comply with TIA Sections 313(b) and 313(c).
A copy of each report at the time of its delivery to Securityholders shall be filed with the SEC and any stock exchange on which the Securities of that Series are listed. The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee in writing when the Securities of any Series are listed on any stock exchange or any delisting thereof, and the Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 313(d).
7.7.    COMPENSATION AND INDEMNITY.
The Company shall pay to the Trustee from time to time compensation for its services as the Company and the Trustee shall from time to time agree in writing. The Trustee’s compensation shall not be limited by any provision of law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust. The Company shall reimburse the Trustee within 45 days after receipt of request for all reasonable disbursements, expenses and advances incurred or made by it in connection with its duties under this Indenture, including the reasonable compensation, disbursements and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel.
The Company shall indemnify the Trustee (in any of its capacities), its officers, directors, employees and agents for, and hold them harmless against, any and all losses, liabilities, damages, claims or expense (including taxes, other than taxes based upon, measured by or determined by the income of the Trustee) incurred by it or arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of its duties under this Indenture including the costs and expenses of enforcing this Indenture against the Company (including this Section 7.7) and defending itself against any claim (whether asserted by the Company or any Holder or any other Person) or liability in connection with the exercise or performance of any of its powers or duties
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hereunder. The Trustee, upon receiving written notice thereof, shall notify the Company promptly of any claim asserted against the Trustee for which it may seek indemnity.
The failure by the Trustee to so notify the Company shall not however relieve the Company of its obligations hereunder. The Company shall defend the claim and the Trustee shall cooperate in the defense. The Trustee may have separate counsel and the Company shall pay the reasonable fees and expenses of such counsel. The Company need not pay for any settlement made without its written consent, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Company need not reimburse the Trustee for any expense or indemnify it against any loss or liability incurred by the Trustee through its negligence or bad faith as established by a final, non-appealable order of a court of competent jurisdiction. To secure the payment obligations of the Company in this Section 7.7, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities of any Series on all money or property held or collected by the Trustee except such money or property held in trust to pay the principal of, interest and premium, if any, on particular Securities of that Series.
When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services after an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(4) or (5) occurs, the expenses and the compensation for the services are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any Bankruptcy Law.
For purposes of this Section 7.7, the term “Trustee” shall include any trustee appointed pursuant to this ARTICLE 7.
The obligations of the Company under this Section 7.7 shall survive the termination or satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or the resignation or removal of the Trustee for any reason.
7.8.    REPLACEMENT OF TRUSTEE.
The Trustee may resign with respect to the Securities of one or more Series by so notifying the Company in writing at least 90 days in advance of such resignation.
The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may remove the Trustee with respect to that Series by notifying the removed Trustee in writing and may appoint a successor Trustee with respect to that Series with the consent of the Company, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld. The Company may remove the Trustee with respect to that Series at its election if:
(1) the Trustee fails to comply with, or ceases to be eligible under, Section 7.10;
(2) the Trustee is adjudged a bankrupt or an insolvent, or an order for relief is entered with respect to the Trustee, under any Bankruptcy Law;
(3) a Custodian or other public officer takes charge of the Trustee or its property; or
(4) the Trustee otherwise becomes incapable of acting.
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If the Trustee resigns or is removed, or if a vacancy exists in the office of Trustee, with respect to any Series of Securities for any reason, the Company shall promptly appoint, by Board Resolution, a successor Trustee.
If a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series does not take office within 60 days after the retiring Trustee resigns or is removed, the retiring Trustee, the Company or the Holders of at least 10% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of the applicable Series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee.
If the Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series fails to comply with Section 7.10, any Securityholder of the applicable Series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor Trustee.
A successor Trustee shall deliver a written acceptance of its appointment to the retiring Trustee and to the Company. Immediately following such delivery, (i) the retiring Trustee with respect to one or more Series shall, subject to its rights under Section 7.7, transfer all property held by it as Trustee with respect to such Series to the successor Trustee, (ii) the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and (iii) the successor Trustee with respect to such Series shall have all the rights, powers and duties of the Trustee under this Indenture. A successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series shall mail notice of its succession to each Securityholder of such Series.
A retiring Trustee shall not be liable for the acts or omissions of any successor Trustee after its succession.
Notwithstanding replacement of the Trustee pursuant to this section 7.8, the Company’s obligations under Section 7.7 shall continue for the benefit of the retiring Trustee.
7.9.    SUCCESSOR TRUSTEE BY CONSOLIDATION, MERGER OR CONVERSION.
Any organization or entity into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any organization or entity resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any organization or entity succeeding to all or substantially all of the corporate trust business of the Trustee, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder, provided such organization or entity shall be otherwise qualified and eligible under this Article 7, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto.
7.10.    ELIGIBILITY; DISQUALIFICATION.
This Indenture shall always have a Trustee who satisfies the requirements of TIA Sections 310(a)(1), (2) and (5) in every respect. The Trustee (or in the case of a Trustee that is a Person included in a bank holding company system, the related bank holding company) shall have a combined capital and surplus of at least $100,000,000 as set forth in its most recent published annual report of condition. The Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 310(b),
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including the provision in Section 310(b)(1). In addition, if the Trustee is a Person included in a bank holding company system, the Trustee, independently of such bank holding company, shall meet the capital requirements of TIA Section 310(a)(2). If at any time the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section 7.10, it shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in this ARTICLE 7.
7.11.    PREFERENTIAL COLLECTION OF CLAIMS AGAINST COMPANY.
The Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 311(a), excluding any creditor relationship listed in TIA Section 311(b). A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to TIA Section 311(a) to the extent indicated therein.
7.12.    PAYING AGENTS.
The Company shall cause each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to execute and deliver to it and the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section 7.12:
(1) that it will hold all sums held by it as agent for the payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any obligor on the Securities) in trust for the benefit of Holders of the Securities or the Trustee;
(2) that it will at any time during the continuance of any Event of Default, upon written request from the Trustee, deliver to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by it together with a full accounting thereof; and
(3) that it will give the Trustee written notice within three Business Days after any failure of the Company (or by any obligor on the Securities) in the payment of any installment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities when the same shall be due and payable.
ARTICLE 8.
AMENDMENTS, SUPPLEMENTS AND WAIVERS
8.1.    WITHOUT CONSENT OF HOLDERS.
The Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee may amend or supplement this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series without notice to or consent of any Securityholder:
(1) to comply with Section 5.1;
(2) to provide for certificated Securities in addition to uncertificated Securities;
(3) to comply with any requirements of the SEC under the TIA;
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(4) to cure any mistake, ambiguity, defect or inconsistency, or to make any other change herein or in the Securities that does not materially and adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder;
(5) to provide for the issuance of, and establish the form and terms and conditions of, Securities of any Series as permitted by this Indenture; or
(6) to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series, and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee.
The Trustee is hereby authorized to join with the Company in the execution of any supplemental indenture authorized or permitted by the terms of this Indenture, and to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations which may be therein contained, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture which adversely affects its own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture.
8.2.    WITH CONSENT OF HOLDERS.
(a)    The Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee may amend or supplement this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series with the written consent of the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series affected by such amendment or supplement without notice to any Securityholder. The Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Securities of each such Series affected by such amendment or supplement may waive compliance by the Company in a particular instance with any provision of this Indenture or the Securities of such Series without notice to any Securityholder. Subject to Section 8.4, without the consent of each Securityholder affected, however, an amendment, supplement or waiver may not:
(1) reduce the amount of Securities whose Holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver to this Indenture or the Securities;
(2) reduce the rate of, or change the time for payment of, interest on any Security;
(3) reduce the principal, or change the Stated Maturity, of any Security, or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation;
(4) make any Security payable in money other than that stated in the Security;
(5) change the amount or time of any payment required by the Securities, or reduce the premium payable upon any redemption of the Securities, or change the time before which no such redemption may be made;
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(6) waive a Default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, any Security (except a rescission of acceleration of the Securities of any Series by the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);
(7) waive a redemption payment with respect to any Security, or change any of the provisions with respect to the redemption of any Securities;
(8) make any changes in Section 6.6 or this Section 8.2, except to increase any percentage of Securities the Holders of which must consent to any matter; or
(9) take any other action otherwise prohibited by this Indenture to be taken without the consent of each Holder affected thereby.
(b)    Upon the request of the Company, accompanied by a Board Resolution authorizing the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and upon the receipt by the Trustee of evidence reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee of the consent of the Securityholders as aforesaid and of the documents described in Section 8.6, the Trustee shall join with the Company in the execution of such supplemental indenture, unless such supplemental indenture affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture, in which case the Trustee may in its discretion, but shall not be obligated to, enter into such supplemental indenture.
(c)    It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Holders under this section to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment, supplement or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if such consent approves the substance thereof.
After an amendment or supplement under this Section becomes effective, the Company shall mail to Securityholders a notice briefly describing the amendment or supplement. Any failure of the Company to mail any such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any supplemental indenture.
8.3.    COMPLIANCE WITH TRUST INDENTURE ACT.
Every amendment to, or supplement of, this Indenture or the Securities shall comply with the TIA as then in effect.
8.4.    REVOCATION AND EFFECT OF CONSENTS.
Until an amendment, supplement, waiver or other action becomes effective, a consent to it by a Holder of a Security is a continuing consent conclusive and binding upon such Holder and every subsequent Holder of the same Security or portion thereof, and of any Security issued upon the transfer thereof or in exchange therefor or in place thereof, even if notation of the consent is not made on any such Security. Any such Holder or subsequent Holder, however, may revoke
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the consent as to his Security or portion of a Security, if the Trustee receives the notice of revocation before the date the amendment, supplement, waiver or other action becomes effective.
The Company may, but shall not be obligated to, fix a record date for the purpose of determining the Holders entitled to consent to any amendment, supplement or waiver, which record date shall be at least 30 days prior to the first solicitation of such consent. If a record date is fixed, then, notwithstanding the preceding paragraph, those Persons who were Holders at such record date (or their duly designated proxies), and only such Persons, shall be entitled to consent to such amendment, supplement or waiver, or to revoke any consent previously given, whether or not such Persons continue to be Holders after such record date.
After an amendment, supplement, waiver or other action becomes effective, it shall bind every Securityholder, unless it makes a change described in any of clauses (1) through (9) of Section 8.2. In that case, the amendment, supplement, waiver or other action shall bind each Holder of a Security who has consented to it and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security; PROVIDED, that any such waiver shall not impair or affect the right of any Holder to receive payment of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, a Security, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates without the consent of such Holder.
8.5.    NOTATION ON OR EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES.
If an amendment, supplement or waiver changes the terms of a Security of any Series, the Trustee may request the Holder of such Security to deliver it to the Trustee. In such case, the Trustee shall place an appropriate notation on such Security about the changed terms and return it to the Holder. Alternatively, the Company, in exchange for such Security, may issue, and the Trustee shall authenticate, a new security that reflects the changed terms. Failure to make the appropriate notation or issue a new Security shall not affect the validity and effect of such amendment, supplement or waiver.
8.6.    TRUSTEE TO SIGN AMENDMENTS, ETC.
The Trustee shall sign any amendment, supplement or waiver authorized pursuant to this ARTICLE 8 if the amendment, supplement or waiver does not adversely affect the rights, duties, liabilities or immunities of the Trustee. If it does, the Trustee may, but need not, sign it. In signing or refusing to sign such amendment, supplement or waiver the Trustee shall be entitled to receive and, subject to Section 7.1, shall be fully protected in relying upon an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel stating that such amendment, supplement or waiver is authorized or permitted by this Indenture. The Company may not sign an amendment or supplement until the Board of Directors of the Company approves it.
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ARTICLE 9.
DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE
9.1.    DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE.
The Company may terminate its obligations under the Securities of any Series and this Indenture with respect to such Series, except the obligations referred to in the last paragraph of this Section 9.1, if there shall have been canceled by the Trustee, or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, all Securities of such Series theretofore authenticated and delivered (other than any Securities of such Series that are asserted to have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that shall have been replaced as provided in Section 2.8) and the Company has paid all sums payable by it hereunder or deposited all required sums with the Trustee.
After such delivery the Trustee upon request shall acknowledge in a writing prepared by or on behalf of the Company the discharge of the Company’s obligations under the Securities of such Series and this Indenture, except for those surviving obligations specified below.
Notwithstanding the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, the obligations of the Company in Sections 7.7, 9.5 and 9.6 shall survive.
9.2.    LEGAL DEFEASANCE.
The Company may at its option, by Board Resolution, be discharged from its obligations with respect to the Securities of any Series on the date upon which the conditions set forth in Section 9.4 below are satisfied (hereinafter, “Legal Defeasance”). For this purpose, such Legal Defeasance means that the Company shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness represented by the Securities of such Series and to have satisfied all its other obligations under such Securities and this Indenture insofar as such Securities are concerned (and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall, subject to Section 9.6, execute proper instruments acknowledging the same, as are delivered to it by the Company), except for the following, which shall survive until otherwise terminated or discharged hereunder: (A) the rights of Holders of outstanding Securities of such Series to receive solely from the trust funds described in Section 9.4 and as more fully set forth in such section, payments in respect of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of such Series when such payments are due, (B) the Company’s obligations with respect to the Securities of such Series under Sections 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8 and 2.9, (C) the rights, powers, trusts, duties and immunities of the Trustee hereunder (including claims of, or payments to, the Trustee under or pursuant to Section 7.7) and (D) this ARTICLE 9. Subject to compliance with this ARTICLE 9, the Company may exercise its option under this Section 9.2 with respect to the Securities of any Series notwithstanding the prior exercise of its option under Section 9.3 below with respect to the Securities of such Series.
9.3.    COVENANT DEFEASANCE.
At the option of the Company, pursuant to a Board Resolution, the Company shall be released from its obligations with respect to the outstanding Securities of any Series under
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Sections 4.2 through 4.5, inclusive, and Section 5.1, with respect to the outstanding Securities of such Series, on and after the date the conditions set forth in Section 9.4 are satisfied (hereinafter, “Covenant Defeasance”). For this purpose, such Covenant Defeasance means that the Company may omit to comply with and shall have no liability in respect of any term, condition or limitation set forth in any such specified section or portion thereof, whether directly or indirectly by reason of any reference elsewhere herein to any such specified Section or portion thereof or by reason of any reference in any such specified section or portion thereof to any other provision herein or in any other document, but the remainder of this Indenture and the Securities of any Series shall be unaffected thereby.
9.4.    CONDITIONS TO LEGAL DEFEASANCE OR COVENANT DEFEASANCE.
The following shall be the conditions to application of Section 9.2 or Section 9.3 to the outstanding Securities of a Series:
(1) the Company shall irrevocably have deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee (or another trustee satisfying the requirements of Section 7.10 who shall agree to comply with the provisions of this ARTICLE 9 applicable to it) as funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments, specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefit of the Holders of the Securities, (A) money in an amount, or (B) U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations which through the scheduled payment of principal and interest in respect thereof in accordance with their terms will provide, not later than the due date of any payment, money in an amount, or (C) a combination thereof, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge, and which shall be applied by the Trustee (or other qualifying trustee) to pay and discharge, the principal of, and accrued interest and premium, if any, on, the outstanding Securities of such Series at the Stated Maturity of such principal, interest or premium, if any, or on dates for payment and redemption of such principal, interest and premium, if any, selected in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and of the Securities of such Series;
(2) no Event of Default or Default (other than that resulting from borrowing funds to be applied to make such deposit and any similar or simultaneous deposit relating to other Indebtedness and, in each case, the granting of liens and the consummation of other transactions in connection therewith) with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit;
(3) such Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance shall not cause the Trustee to have a conflicting interest for purposes of the TIA with respect to any securities of the Company;
(4) such Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance shall not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute default under, any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound;
(5) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel stating that, as a result of such Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance, neither the trust nor
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the Trustee will be required to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended;
(6) in the case of an election under Section 9.2, the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel stating that (i) the Company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling to the effect that or (ii) there has been a change in any applicable Federal income tax law with the effect that, and such opinion shall confirm that, the Holders of the outstanding Securities of such Series or Persons in
(7) their positions will not recognize income, gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes solely as a result of such Legal Defeasance and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner, including as a result of prepayment, and at the same times as would have been the case if such Legal Defeasance had not occurred;
(8) in the case of an election under Section 9.3, the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the Holders of the outstanding Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of such Covenant Defeasance, and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such Covenant Defeasance had not occurred;
(9) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this ARTICLE 9 relating to either the Legal Defeasance under Section 9.2 or the Covenant Defeasance under Section 9.3 (as the case may be) have been complied with;
(10) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that the deposit under clause (1) was not made by the Company with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any creditors of the Company or others; and
(11) the Company shall have paid, or duly provided for payment under terms mutually satisfactory to the Company and the Trustee, all amounts then due to the Trustee pursuant to Section 7.7.
9.5.    DEPOSITED MONEY AND U.S. AND FOREIGN GOVERNMENT OBLIGATIONS TO BE HELD IN TRUST; OTHER MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS.
All money, U.S. Government Obligations and Foreign Government Obligations (including the proceeds thereof) deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 9.4 in respect of the outstanding Securities shall be held in trust and applied by the Trustee, in accordance with the provisions of such Securities and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent as the Trustee may determine, to the Holders of such Securities, of all sums due and to become due thereon in respect of principal, accrued interest and premium, if any, but such money need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.
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The Company shall pay and indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against the U.S. Government Obligations and Foreign Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Section 9.4 or the principal, interest and premium, if any, received in respect thereof other than any such tax, fee or other charge which by law is for the account of the Holders of the outstanding Securities.
Anything in this ARTICLE 9 to the contrary notwithstanding, but subject to payment of any of its outstanding fees and expenses, the Trustee shall deliver or pay to the Company from time to time upon Company Request any money, U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations held by the Trustee as provided in Section 9.4 which, in the opinion of a nationally-recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, are in excess of the amount thereof which would then be required to be deposited to effect an equivalent Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance.
9.6.    REINSTATEMENT.
If the Trustee or Paying Agent is unable to apply any money, U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations in accordance with Section 9.1, 9.2, 9.3 or 9.4 by reason of any legal proceeding or by reason of any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority enjoining, restraining or otherwise prohibiting such application, the Company’s obligations under this Indenture and the Securities shall be revived and reinstated as though no deposit had occurred pursuant to this ARTICLE 9 until such time as the Trustee or Paying Agent is permitted to apply all such money, U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations, as the case may be, in accordance with Section 9.1, 9.2, 9.3 or 9.4; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that if the Company has made any payment of principal of, or accrued interest or premium, if any, on, any Securities because of the reinstatement of its obligations, the Company shall be subrogated to the rights of the Holders of such Securities to receive such payment from the money, U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations held by the Trustee or Paying Agent.
9.7.    MONEYS HELD BY PAYING AGENT.
In connection with the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, all moneys then held by any Paying Agent under the provisions of this Indenture shall, upon demand of the Company, be paid to the Trustee, or, if sufficient moneys have been deposited pursuant to Section 9.1, to the Company, and thereupon such Paying Agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys.
9.8.    MONEYS HELD BY TRUSTEE.
Any moneys deposited with the Trustee or any Paying Agent or then held by the Company in trust for the payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, any Security that are not applied but remain unclaimed by the Holder of such Security for two years after the date upon which the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, such Security shall have respectively become due and payable shall be repaid to the Company upon Company
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Request, or if such moneys are then held by the Company in trust, such moneys shall be released from such trust; and the Holder of such Security entitled to receive such payment shall thereafter, as an unsecured general creditor, look only to the Company for the payment thereof, and all liability of the Trustee or such Paying Agent with respect to such trust money shall thereupon cease; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that the Trustee or any such Paying Agent, before being required to make any such repayment, may, at the expense of the Company, either mail to each Securityholder affected, at the address shown in the register of the Securities maintained by the Registrar, or cause to be published once a week for two successive weeks, in a newspaper published in the English language, customarily published each Business Day and of general circulation in the City of New York, New York, a notice that such money remains unclaimed and that, after a date specified therein, which shall not be less than 30 days from the date of such mailing or publication, any unclaimed balance of such moneys then remaining will be repaid to the Company. After payment to the Company or the release of any money held in trust by the Company, Securityholders entitled to the money must look only to the Company for payment as general creditors, unless applicable abandoned property law designates another Person.
ARTICLE 10.
MISCELLANEOUS
10.1.    TRUST INDENTURE ACT CONTROLS.
If any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts with another provision which is required to be included in this Indenture by the TIA, the required provision shall control. If any provision of this Indenture modifies or excludes any provision of the TIA which may be so modified or excluded, the latter provision shall be deemed to apply to this Indenture as so modified or to be excluded, as the case may be.
10.2.    NOTICES.
Any notice or communication shall be given in writing or delivered in Person, delivered by commercial courier service or mailed by first-class mail, postage prepaid, addressed as follows:
If to the Company:
LianBio
103 Carnegie Center Drive, Suite 309
Princeton, NJ 08540
Telephone: (609) 486-2308
Attention: Yi Larson
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Copy to:
LianBio
103 Carnegie Center Drive, Suite 309
Princeton, NJ 08540
Telephone: (609) 486-2308
Attention: Brianne Jahn
Ropes & Gray LLP
800 Boylston Street
Boston, Massachusetts 02199
Telephone: (617) 951-7000
Attention: Thomas Danielski
If to the Trustee:
U.S. Bank Trust Company, National Association
1 Federal Street, 10th Floor
Boston, MA 02110
Telephone: (617) 603-6553
Attention: A. Nadeau (LianBio)
The Company or the Trustee by written notice to the other may designate additional or different addresses for subsequent notices or communications. Any notice or communication to the Company or the Trustee shall be deemed to have been given or made as of the date so delivered if personally delivered and three Business Days after mailing if sent by registered or certified mail, postage prepaid (except that a notice of change of address shall not be deemed to have been given until actually received by the addressee).
Any notice or communication mailed to a Securityholder shall be mailed to such Securityholder by first-class mail, postage prepaid, at such Securityholder’s address shown on the register kept by the Registrar.
Failure to mail, or any defect in, a notice or communication to a Securityholder shall not affect its sufficiency with respect to other Securityholders. If a notice or communication to a Securityholder is mailed in the manner provided above, it shall be deemed duly given, three Business Days after such mailing, whether or not the addressee receives it.
If the Company delivers a notice or communication to Securityholders, it shall deliver a copy to the Trustee and each Agent at the same time.
In case by reason of the suspension of regular mail service, or by reason of any other cause, it shall be impossible to mail any notice as required by this Indenture, then such method of notification as shall be made with the approval of the Trustee shall constitute a sufficient mailing of such notice.
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In the case of Global Securities, notices or communications to be given to Securityholders shall be given to the Depository, in accordance with its applicable policies as in effect from time to time.
In addition to the manner provided for in the foregoing provisions, notices or communications to Securityholders shall be given by the Company by release made to Reuters Economic Services and Bloomberg Business News.
The Trustee shall have the right to accept and act upon instructions, including funds transfer instructions (“Instructions”) given by the Company pursuant to this Indenture and delivered using unsecured e-mail, facsimile transmission or other similar unsecured electronic methods (including pdf files) (“Electronic Means”); provided, however, that the Company shall provide to the Trustee an incumbency certificate listing officers with the authority to provide such Instructions (each, an “Authorized Officer”) and containing specimen signatures of such Authorized Officers, which incumbency certificate shall be amended by the Company whenever a person is to be added or deleted from the listing. Unless otherwise provided in this Indenture or in any Security, the words “execute,” “execution,” “signed” and “signature” and words of similar import used in or related to any document to be signed in connection with this Indenture, any Security or any of the transactions contemplated hereby (including amendments, waivers, consents and other modifications) shall be deemed to include electronic signatures (including electronic images of handwritten signatures and digital signatures provided by DocuSign, Adobe Sign or any other digital signature provider identified by any other party hereto and acceptable to Trustee) and the keeping of records in electronic form, each of which shall be of the same legal effect, validity or enforceability as a manually executed signature in ink or the use of a paper-based recordkeeping system, as applicable, to the fullest extent and as provided for in any applicable law, including the Federal Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, the New York State Electronic Signatures and Records Act and any other similar state laws based on the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act; provided that, notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, the Trustee is not under any obligation to agree to accept electronic signatures in any form or in any format unless expressly agreed to by the Trustee pursuant to procedures approved by the Trustee. If the Company elects to give the Trustee Instructions using Electronic Means and the Trustee in its discretion elects to act upon such Instructions, the Trustee’s understanding of such Instructions shall be deemed controlling. The Company understands and agrees that the Trustee cannot determine the identity of the actual sender of such Instructions and that the Trustee shall conclusively presume that Instructions that purport to have been sent by an Authorized Officer listed on the incumbency certificate provided to the Trustee have been sent by such Authorized Officer. The Company shall be responsible for ensuring that only Authorized Officers transmit such Instructions to the Trustee and that the Company and all Authorized Officers are solely responsible to safeguard the use and confidentiality of applicable user and authorization codes, passwords and/or authentication keys upon receipt by the Company. The Trustee shall not be liable for any losses, costs or expenses arising directly or indirectly from the Trustee’s reliance upon and compliance with such Instructions notwithstanding such Instructions conflict or are inconsistent with a subsequent written instruction. The Company agrees: (a) to assume all risks arising out of the use of electronic signatures and Electronic Means to submit notices or Instructions to the Trustee, including
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without limitation the risk of the Trustee acting on unauthorized notice or Instructions, and the risk of interception and misuse by third parties; and (b) to notify the Trustee in writing immediately upon learning of any compromise or unauthorized use of the security procedures. Any notice, direction, request or demand hereunder to or upon the Trustee shall be deemed to have been sufficiently given or made, for all purposes, if it is in writing and actually received by the Trustee, addressed as provided above or sent electronically in PDF format.
10.3.    COMMUNICATIONS BY HOLDERS WITH OTHER HOLDERS.
Securityholders of any Series may communicate pursuant to TIA Section 312(b) with other Securityholders of that Series or any other Series with respect to their rights under this Indenture or the Securities of that Series or any other Series. The Company, the Trustee, the Registrar and any other Person shall have the protection of TIA Section 312(c).
10.4.    CERTIFICATE AND OPINION AS TO CONDITIONS PRECEDENT.
Upon any request or application by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee:
(1) an Officers’ Certificate (which shall include the statements set forth in Section 10.5 below) stating that, in the opinion of the signers, all conditions precedent, if any, provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with; and
(2) an Opinion of Counsel (which shall include the statements set forth in Section 10.5 below) stating that, in the opinion of such counsel, all such conditions precedent have been complied with.
10.5.    STATEMENT REQUIRED IN CERTIFICATE AND OPINION.
Each certificate and opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture (other than pursuant to Section 4.4) shall include:
(1) a statement that the Person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition;
(2) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based;
(3) a statement that, in the opinion of such Person, it or he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable it or him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and
(4) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such Person, such covenant or condition has been complied with.
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10.6.    RULES BY TRUSTEE AND AGENTS.
The Trustee may make reasonable rules for action by or at meetings of Securityholders. The Registrar and Paying Agent may make reasonable rules for their functions.
10.7.    BUSINESS DAYS; LEGAL HOLIDAYS; PLACE OF PAYMENT.
A “Business Day” is a day that is not a Legal Holiday. A “Legal Holiday” is a Saturday, a Sunday, a federally-recognized holiday or a day on which banking institutions are not authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to be open in the State of New York or Place of Payment.
If a payment date is a Legal Holiday at a Place of Payment, payment may be made at that place on the next succeeding day that is not a Legal Holiday, and no interest shall accrue for the intervening period. “Place of Payment” means the place or places where the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of a Series are payable as specified as contemplated by Section2.2. If the regular record date is a Legal Holiday, the record date shall not be affected.
10.8.    GOVERNING LAW.
THIS INDENTURE AND THE SECURITIES SHALL BE GOVERNED BY AND CONSTRUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK, AS APPLIED TO CONTRACTS MADE AND PERFORMED WITHIN THE STATE OF NEW YORK WITHOUT REGARD TO PRINCIPLES OF CONFLICTS OF LAW.
10.9.    NO ADVERSE INTERPRETATION OF OTHER AGREEMENTS.
This Indenture may not be used to interpret another indenture, loan, security or debt agreement of the Company or any Subsidiary thereof. No such indenture, loan, security or debt agreement may be used to interpret this Indenture.
10.10.    NO RECOURSE AGAINST OTHERS.
A director, officer, employee, stockholder or incorporator, as such, of the Company shall not have any liability for any obligations of the Company under the Securities or the Indenture. Each Securityholder by accepting a Security waives and releases all such liability. Such waiver and release are part of the consideration for the issuance of the Securities.
10.11.    SUCCESSORS.
All covenants and agreements of the Company in this Indenture and the Securities shall bind the Company’s successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not. All agreements of the Trustee, any additional trustee and any Paying Agents in this Indenture shall bind their respective successors and assigns.
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10.12.    MULTIPLE COUNTERPARTS.
The parties may sign multiple counterparts of this Indenture. Each signed counterpart shall be deemed an original, but all of them together represent one and the same agreement. Delivery of an executed counterpart by facsimile or PDF shall be effective as delivery of a manually executed counterpart thereof.
10.13.    TABLE OF CONTENTS, HEADINGS, ETC.
The table of contents, cross-reference sheet and headings of the Articles and Sections of this Indenture have been inserted for convenience of reference only, are not to be considered a part hereof, and shall in no way modify or restrict any of the terms or provisions hereof.
10.14.    SEVERABILITY.
Each provision of this Indenture shall be considered separable, and if for any reason any provision which is not essential to the effectuation of the basic purpose of this Indenture or the Securities shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby, and a Holder shall have no claim therefor against any party hereto.
10.15.    SECURITIES IN A FOREIGN CURRENCY OR IN EUROS.
Unless otherwise specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 with respect to a particular Series of Securities, whenever for purposes of this Indenture any action may be taken by the Holders of a specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of Securities of all Series or all Series affected by a particular action at the time outstanding and, at such time, there are outstanding Securities of any Series which are denominated in a coin or currency other than Dollars (including Euros), then the principal amount of Securities of such Series which shall be deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of taking such action shall be that amount of Dollars that could be obtained for such amount at the Market Exchange Rate at such time. For purposes of this Section 10.15, “Market Exchange Rate” shall mean the noon Dollar buying rate in New York City for cable transfers of that currency as published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, in the case of Euros, Market Exchange Rate shall mean the rate of exchange determined by the Commission of the European Union (or any successor thereto) as published in the Official Journal of the European Union (such publication or any successor publication, the “Journal”). If such Market Exchange Rate is not available for any reason with respect to such currency, the Trustee shall use, in its sole discretion and without liability on its part, such quotation of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York or, in the case of Euros, the rate of exchange as published in the Journal, as of the most recent available date, or quotations or, in the case of Euros, rates of exchange from one or more major banks in New York City or in the country of issue of the currency in question or, in the case of Euros, in Luxembourg or such other quotations or, in the case of Euros, rates of exchange as the Trustee, upon consultation with the Company, shall deem appropriate. The provisions of this paragraph shall apply in determining the equivalent principal amount in respect of Securities of a Series denominated in currency
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other than Dollars in connection with any action taken by Holders of Securities pursuant to the terms of this Indenture.
All decisions and determinations of the Trustee regarding the Market Exchange Rate or any alternative determination provided for in the preceding paragraph shall be in the Trustee’s sole discretion, and shall, in the absence of manifest error, be conclusive to the extent permitted by law for all purposes and irrevocably binding upon the Company and all Holders.
10.16.    FORCE MAJEURE. In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including, without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, epidemic, pandemic, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services; provided that the Trustee shall use reasonable efforts consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances.
10.17.    WAIVER OF JURY TRIAL. EACH OF THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY PPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS INDENTURE, THE SECURITIES OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.
10.18.    U.S.A PATRIOT ACT. The parties hereto acknowledge that in accordance with Section 326 of the U.S.A. Patriot Act, the Trustee, like all financial institutions, in order to help fight the funding of terrorism and money laundering, is required to obtain, verify and record information that identifies each person or legal entity that establishes a Relationship or opens an account with the Trustee. The parties to this Indenture agree that they will provide the Trustee with such information as it may reasonably request in order for the Trustee to satisfy the requirements of the U.S.A. Patriot Act.
10.19.    JUDGMENT CURRENCY.
The Company agrees, to the fullest extent that it may effectively do so under applicable law, that (a) if for the purpose of obtaining judgment in any court it is necessary to convert the sum due in respect of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, or other amount on, the Securities of any Series (the “Required Currency”) into a currency in which a judgment will be rendered (the “Judgment Currency”), the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which, in accordance with normal banking procedures, the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered, unless such day is not a Business Day, in which instance, the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which, in accordance with normal banking procedures, the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the Business Day preceding the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered and (b) its obligations under this Indenture to make payments in the Required Currency (i) shall not be discharged or satisfied by any tender or any recovery pursuant to any judgment
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(whether or not entered in accordance with subsection (a)) in any currency other than the Required Currency, except to the extent that such tender or recovery shall result in the actual receipt, by the payee, of the full amount of the Required Currency expressed to be payable in respect of such payments, (ii) shall be enforceable as an alternative or additional cause of action for the purpose of recovering in the Required Currency the amount, if any, by which such actual receipt shall fall short of the full amount of the Required Currency so expressed to be payable and (iii) shall not be affected by judgment being obtained for any other sum due under this Indenture.
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IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed, and, if applicable, their respective corporate seals to be hereunto affixed and attested, all as of the day and year first above written.
LIANBIO
By:
Name:
Title:
U.S. BANK TRUST COMPANY, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION
By:
Name:
Title:
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Document
Exhibit 5.1
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Office:    +852 2801 6066
Mobile:   +852 9718 8740
Email:    rthorp@tta.lawyer

LianBio
Harbour Place, 2nd Floor
103 South Church Street
P.O. Box 472, George Town
Grand Cayman KYI-1106
Cayman Islands

10 November 2022
Dear Sirs
LianBio
We have acted as Cayman Islands legal advisers to LianBio, an exempted company incorporated in the Cayman Islands with limited liability (the "Company") in connection with the Company’s registration statement on Form S-3, including all amendments or supplements thereto (the "Registration Statement"), filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the "Commission") under the United States Securities Act of 1933 (the "Act"), as amended, relating to the registration of certain securities up to a maximum aggregate offering price of US$500,000,000 (the "Securities"), including the Company’s:
(i)Ordinary shares with a par value of $0.000017100448 per share (the "Ordinary Shares");
(ii)Preferred shares (the "Preferred Shares");
(iii)Debt securities in either senior or subordinated debt or as senior subordinated convertible debt (the "Debt Securities") issuable pursuant to an indenture to be entered into by the Company and the trustee (the "Indenture");
(iv)Warrants to purchase Ordinary Shares, Preferred Shares, American depositary shares or Debt Securities (the "Warrants") issuable pursuant to the terms of a warrant agreement (the "Warrant Agreement") and warrant certificate (the "Warrant Certificate" and, together with the Warrant Agreement, the "Warrant Documents"); and
(v)Units which may consist of any combination of the other types of securities (the "Units")
This opinion is given in accordance with the terms of the Legal Matters section of the Registration Statement.
1Documents Reviewed
For the purposes of this opinion we have reviewed originals, copies, drafts or conformed copies of the documents listed in Schedule 1 to this opinion, being all of the documents necessary to form our opinion. Defined terms shall have the meanings set out in Schedule 1 or in the Registration Statement.
2Assumptions
The following opinions are given only as to and based on circumstances and matters of fact existing at the date hereof and as to the laws of the Cayman Islands as the same are in force at the date hereof. In giving this opinion, we have relied (without further verification) upon
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the completeness and accuracy, as at the date of this opinion, of the Director's Certificate. We have also relied upon the assumptions set out in Schedule 2 to this opinion, which we have not independently verified.
1Qualifications
The opinions expressed below are subject to the qualifications set out in Schedule 3 to this opinion.
2Opinions
Based upon, and subject to, the foregoing assumptions, and having regard to such legal considerations as we deem relevant, we are of the opinion that:
4.1The Company has been duly incorporated and is validly existing and in good standing with the Registrar of Companies under the laws of the Cayman Islands.
4.2The Company has all the requisite power and authority under the M&A to enter into, execute and perform its obligations under the Indenture and the Debt Securities issuable under such Indenture.
4.3The Ordinary Shares are duly authorised and, when allotted, issued and paid for as contemplated in the Registration Statement, the Ordinary Shares will be legally issued and allotted, as fully paid and non-assessable.
4.4With respect to the Preferred Shares, when (a) the directors of the Company (the "Directors") have taken all necessary corporate action to establish the terms of the Preferred Shares, the offering thereof and related matters, and (b) when such Preferred Shares series have been issued and sold by the Company in the manner contemplated by the Registration Statement and in accordance with such resolutions of the Directors, such Preferred Shares (including any shares of such series of preferred shares duly issued upon conversion, exchange or exercise of any other security in accordance with the terms of such other security or the instrument governing such other security providing for such conversion, exchange or exercise as approved by the Directors in accordance with the provisions of the M&A) will be duly authorised, legally issued and allotted, as fully paid and non-assessable.
4.5With respect to the Debt Securities pursuant to the relevant Indenture Document, when (a) the Directors have taken all necessary corporate action to establish the terms of the Debt Securities and to approve the issue thereof, the terms of the offering thereof and related matters, and (b) when the Indenture Document relating to the Debt Securities shall have been duly authorised and validly executed and delivered by the Company and authenticated in the manner prescribed in the Indenture Agreement relating to the Debt Security and delivered against due payment pursuant to, and in accordance with, the terms of the Registration Statement and any relevant prospectus supplement, such Debt Securities issued pursuant to the Indenture Agreement will have been duly executed, issued and delivered.
4.6With respect to the Warrants issued and outstanding as at the date of, and as detailed in, the Registration Statement (the "Current Warrants"), the Current Warrants have been duly executed by or on behalf of the Company and constitutes legal, valid and binding obligations of the Company enforceable in accordance with the terms thereof.
4.7With respect to the Warrants (excluding the Current Warrants), when (a) the Directors of the Company have taken all necessary corporate action to approve the terms of the Warrants and to approve the issue thereof, the terms of the offering thereof and related matters, and (b) when a Warrant Agreement relating to the Warrants shall have been duly authorised and validly executed and delivered by the Company and the financial institution designated as warrant agent thereunder, and (c) the Warrant Certificates have been duly executed, countersigned, registered and delivered in accordance with the Warrant Agreement relating to the Warrants and the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement approved by the Directors



upon payment of the consideration therefor provided therein, the Warrants will be duly authorised, legal and binding obligations of the Company.
4.8In this opinion the phrase "non-assessable" means, with respect to shares in the Company, that a shareholder shall not, solely by virtue of its status as a shareholder, be liable for additional assessments or calls on the shares by the Company or its creditors (except in exceptional circumstances, such as involving fraud, the establishment of an agency relationship or an illegal or improper purpose or other circumstances in which a court may be prepared to pierce or lift the corporate veil).
We express no view as to the commercial terms of the Documents or the relevant Securities issuable thereunder or whether such terms represent the intentions of the parties and make no comment with regard to warranties or representations that may be made by the Company.
We hereby consent to the prospectus discussion of this opinion, to the filing of this opinion as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and to the reference to our firm under the heading "Legal Matters" and elsewhere in the prospectus included in the Registration Statement. In providing our consent, we do not thereby admit that we are in the category of persons whose consent is required under Section 7 of the Act or the Rules and Regulations of the Commission thereunder.
This opinion is limited to the matters detailed herein and is not to be read as an opinion with respect to any other matter. 
Yours faithfully

/s/TRAVERS THORP ALBERGA

TRAVERS THORP ALBERGA




SCHEDULE 1
List of Documents Reviewed
1the Certificate of Incorporation dated 17 July 2019;
2the register of directors of the Company;
3the Fifth Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association of the Company as adopted by special resolution passed on 14 October 2021 (the "M&A");
4the written resolutions of the directors of the Company dated 7 November 2022 (the "Board Resolutions");
5a certificate from a Director of the Company a copy of which is annexed hereto (the "Director's Certificate"); and
6the Registration Statement;
7the Indenture; and
8the Warrant Documents.
The documents in 7 and 8 together are referred to as the "Documents".




SCHEDULE 2
Assumptions

We have relied upon the following assumptions, which we have not independently verified:
1.The Documents, the Warrants issuable under the Warrant Documents and the Debt Securities issuable under the Indenture Documents have been, or will be, authorised and duly executed and unconditionally delivered by or on behalf of all relevant parties in accordance with all relevant laws.
2.The Documents, the Warrants issuable under the Warrant Documents and the Debt Securities issuable under the Indenture Documents are, or will be, legal, valid, binding and enforceable against all relevant parties in accordance with their terms under the laws of the State of New York (the "Relevant Law") and all other relevant laws (other than, with respect to the Company, the laws of the Cayman Islands).
3.The choice of the Relevant Law as the governing law of the Documents, the Warrants issuable under the Warrant Documents and the Debt Securities issuable under the Indenture Documents has been made in good faith and would be regarded as a valid and binding selection which will be upheld by the courts of the State of New York and any other relevant jurisdiction (other than the Cayman Islands) as a matter of the Relevant Law and all other relevant laws (other than the laws of the Cayman Islands).
4.Copies of documents, conformed copies or drafts of documents provided to us are true and complete copies of, or in the final forms of, the originals.
5.All signatures, initials and seals are genuine.
6.The capacity, power, authority and legal right of all parties under all relevant laws and regulations (other than, with respect to the Company, the laws of the Cayman Islands) to enter into, execute, unconditionally deliver and perform their respective obligations under the Documents, the Warrants issuable under the Warrant Documents and the Debt Securities issuable under the Indenture Documents.
7.There is no contractual or other prohibition or restriction (other than as arising under Cayman Islands law) binding on the Company prohibiting or restricting it from entering into and performing its obligations under the Documents.
8.No monies paid to or for the account of any party under the Documents, the Warrants issuable under the Warrant Documents and the Debt Securities issuable under the Indenture Documents or any property received or disposed of by any party to the Documents, the Warrants issuable under the Warrant Documents and the Debt Securities issuable under the Indenture Documents in each case in connection with the Documents, the Warrants issuable under the Warrant Documents and the Debt Securities issuable under the Indenture Documents or the consummation of the transactions contemplated thereby represent or will represent proceeds of criminal conduct or criminal property or terrorist property (as defined in the Proceeds of Crime Act (Revised) and the Terrorism Act (Revised), respectively).
9.The Debt Securities will be issued and authenticated in accordance with the provisions of a duly authorised, executed and delivered Indenture Document.
10.The Indenture Documents, the Warrants and the Warrant Documents will be, or have been, duly executed and delivered by an authorised person of the parties thereto.
11.The Company will receive money or money’s worth in consideration for the issue of the Ordinary Shares and the Preferred Shares and none of the Ordinary Shares or the Preferred Shares will be issued for less than their par value.
12.There will be sufficient Ordinary Shares and Preferred Shares authorised for issue under the M&A.



13.The issue of the Warrants issuable under the Warrant Documents, the Debt Securities issuable under the Indenture Documents, the Ordinary Shares and the Preferred Shares will be of commercial benefit to the Company.
14.No invitation has been or will be made by or on behalf of the Company to the public in the Cayman Islands to subscribe for any of the Warrants, the Debt Securities, the Ordinary Shares or the Preferred Shares.
15.There is nothing under any law (other than the laws of the Cayman Islands) which would or might affect the opinions set out above. Specifically, we have made no independent investigation of the Relevant Law.
Save as aforesaid we have not been instructed to undertake and have not undertaken any further enquiry or due diligence in relation to the transaction the subject of this opinion letter.




SCHEDULE 3
Qualifications

The opinions expressed above are subject to the following qualifications:
1.The obligations assumed by the Company under the Documents or the relevant Securities issuable thereunder will not necessarily be enforceable in all circumstances in accordance with their terms. In particular:
(a)enforcement may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, liquidation, reorganisation, readjustment of debts or moratorium or other laws of general application relating to or affecting the rights of creditors;
(b)enforcement may be limited by general principles of equity. For example, equitable remedies such as specific performance may not be available, inter alia, where damages are considered to be an adequate remedy;
(c)some claims may become barred under relevant statutes of limitation or may be or become subject to defences of set off, counterclaim, estoppel and similar defences;
(d)where obligations are to be performed in a jurisdiction outside the Cayman Islands, they may not be enforceable in the Cayman Islands to the extent that performance would be illegal under the laws of that jurisdiction;
(e)the courts of the Cayman Islands have jurisdiction to give judgment in the currency of the relevant obligation and statutory rates of interest payable upon judgments will vary according to the currency of the judgment. If the Company becomes insolvent and is made subject to a liquidation proceeding, the courts of the Cayman Islands will require all debts to be proved in a common currency, which is likely to be the "functional currency" of the Company determined in accordance with applicable accounting principles. Currency indemnity provisions have not been tested, so far as we are aware, in the courts of the Cayman Islands;
(f)arrangements that constitute penalties will not be enforceable;
(g)enforcement may be prevented by reason of fraud, coercion, duress, undue influence, misrepresentation, public policy or mistake or limited by the doctrine of frustration of contracts;
(h)provisions imposing confidentiality obligations may be overridden by compulsion of applicable law or the requirements of legal and/or regulatory process;
(i)the courts of the Cayman Islands may decline to exercise jurisdiction in relation to substantive proceedings brought under or in relation to the Documents in matters where they determine that such proceedings may be tried in a more appropriate forum;
(j)any provision in a document which is governed by Cayman Islands law purporting to impose obligations on a person who is not a party to such document (a "third party") is unenforceable against that third party. Any provision in a document which is governed by Cayman Islands law purporting to grant rights to a third party is unenforceable by that third party, except to the extent that such document expressly provides that the third party may, in its own right, enforce such rights (subject to and in accordance with the Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act, 2014 of the Cayman Islands);
(k)any provision of a document which is governed by Cayman Islands law which expresses any matter to be determined by future agreement may be void or unenforceable;



(l)we reserve our opinion as to the enforceability of the relevant provisions of the Documents to the extent that they purport to grant exclusive jurisdiction as there may be circumstances in which the courts of the Cayman Islands would accept jurisdiction notwithstanding such provisions; and
(m)a company cannot, by agreement or in its articles of association, restrict the exercise of a statutory power and there is doubt as to the enforceability of any provision in the Documents whereby the Company covenants to restrict the exercise of powers specifically given to it under the Companies Act (Revised) of the Cayman Islands, including, without limitation, the power to increase its authorised share capital, amend its memorandum and articles of association or present a petition to a Cayman Islands court for an order to wind up the Company.
2.To maintain the Company in good standing with the Registrar of Companies under the laws of the Cayman Islands, annual filing fees must be paid and returns made to the Registrar of Companies within the time frame prescribed by law.
3.We express no opinion as to the meaning, validity or effect of any references to foreign (i.e. non-Cayman Islands) statutes, rules, regulations, codes, judicial authority or any other promulgations and any references to them in the Documents or the relevant Securities issuable thereunder.
4.We have not reviewed the final forms of the Indenture Documents, the Debt Securities to be issued thereunder, the Warrant Documents or the Warrants to be issued thereunder, and our opinions are qualified accordingly.
5.We reserve our opinion as to the extent to which the courts of the Cayman Islands would, in the event of any relevant illegality or invalidity, sever the relevant provisions of the Indenture Documents, the Debt Securities, the Warrant Documents, the Warrants and enforce the remainder of the Indenture Documents, the Debt Securities, the Warrant Documents, the Warrants or the transaction of which such provisions form a part, notwithstanding any express provisions in the Indenture Documents in this regard.
6.Under Cayman Islands law, the register of members (shareholders) is prima facie evidence of title to shares and this register would not record a third party interest in such shares. However, there are certain limited circumstances where an application may be made to a Cayman Islands court for a determination on whether the register of members reflects the correct legal position. Further, the Cayman Islands court has the power to order that the register of members maintained by a company should be rectified where it considers that the register of members does not reflect the correct legal position. As far as we are aware, such applications are rarely made in the Cayman Islands and there are no circumstances or matters of fact known to us on the date of this opinion letter which would properly form the basis for an application for an order for rectification of the register of members of the Company, but if such an application were made in respect of the Company’s Shares, then the validity of such shares may be subject to re-examination by a Cayman Islands court.

Document
Exhibit 5.2